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Planning with Entity Chains for Abstractive Summarization

Apr 15, 2021
Shashi Narayan, Yao Zhao, Joshua Maynez, Gonçalo Simoes, Ryan McDonald

Pre-trained transformer-based sequence-to-sequence models have become the go-to solution for many text generation tasks, including summarization. However, the results produced by these models tend to contain significant issues such as hallucinations and irrelevant passages. One solution to mitigate these problems is to incorporate better content planning in neural summarization. We propose to use entity chains (i.e., chains of entities mentioned in the summary) to better plan and ground the generation of abstractive summaries. In particular, we augment the target by prepending it with its entity chain. We experimented with both pre-training and finetuning with this content planning objective. When evaluated on CNN/DailyMail, SAMSum and XSum, models trained with this objective improved on entity correctness and summary conciseness, and achieved state-of-the-art performance on ROUGE for SAMSum and XSum.

* 11 pages 

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Construction of a Large-scale Japanese ASR Corpus on TV Recordings

Mar 26, 2021
Shintaro Ando, Hiromasa Fujihara

This paper presents a new large-scale Japanese speech corpus for training automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. This corpus contains over 2,000 hours of speech with transcripts built on Japanese TV recordings and their subtitles. We develop herein an iterative workflow to extract matching audio and subtitle segments from TV recordings based on a conventional method for lightly-supervised audio-to-text alignment. We evaluate a model trained with our corpus using an evaluation dataset built on Japanese TEDx presentation videos and confirm that the performance is better than that trained with the Corpus of Spontaneous Japanese (CSJ). The experiment results show the usefulness of our corpus for training ASR systems. This corpus is made public for the research community along with Kaldi scripts for training the models reported in this paper.

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Dialect Identification in Nuanced Arabic Tweets Using Farasa Segmentation and AraBERT

Feb 22, 2021
Anshul Wadhawan

This paper presents our approach to address the EACL WANLP-2021 Shared Task 1: Nuanced Arabic Dialect Identification (NADI). The task is aimed at developing a system that identifies the geographical location(country/province) from where an Arabic tweet in the form of modern standard Arabic or dialect comes from. We solve the task in two parts. The first part involves pre-processing the provided dataset by cleaning, adding and segmenting various parts of the text. This is followed by carrying out experiments with different versions of two Transformer based models, AraBERT and AraELECTRA. Our final approach achieved macro F1-scores of 0.216, 0.235, 0.054, and 0.043 in the four subtasks, and we were ranked second in MSA identification subtasks and fourth in DA identification subtasks.

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Active Learning for Sequence Tagging with Deep Pre-trained Models and Bayesian Uncertainty Estimates

Feb 18, 2021
Artem Shelmanov, Dmitri Puzyrev, Lyubov Kupriyanova, Denis Belyakov, Daniil Larionov, Nikita Khromov, Olga Kozlova, Ekaterina Artemova, Dmitry V. Dylov, Alexander Panchenko

Annotating training data for sequence tagging of texts is usually very time-consuming. Recent advances in transfer learning for natural language processing in conjunction with active learning open the possibility to significantly reduce the necessary annotation budget. We are the first to thoroughly investigate this powerful combination for the sequence tagging task. We conduct an extensive empirical study of various Bayesian uncertainty estimation methods and Monte Carlo dropout options for deep pre-trained models in the active learning framework and find the best combinations for different types of models. Besides, we also demonstrate that to acquire instances during active learning, a full-size Transformer can be substituted with a distilled version, which yields better computational performance and reduces obstacles for applying deep active learning in practice.

* In Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL-2021) 

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Self-Supervised learning with cross-modal transformers for emotion recognition

Nov 20, 2020
Aparna Khare, Srinivas Parthasarathy, Shiva Sundaram

Emotion recognition is a challenging task due to limited availability of in-the-wild labeled datasets. Self-supervised learning has shown improvements on tasks with limited labeled datasets in domains like speech and natural language. Models such as BERT learn to incorporate context in word embeddings, which translates to improved performance in downstream tasks like question answering. In this work, we extend self-supervised training to multi-modal applications. We learn multi-modal representations using a transformer trained on the masked language modeling task with audio, visual and text features. This model is fine-tuned on the downstream task of emotion recognition. Our results on the CMU-MOSEI dataset show that this pre-training technique can improve the emotion recognition performance by up to 3% compared to the baseline.

* To appear in SLT2020 

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doc2dial: A Goal-Oriented Document-Grounded Dialogue Dataset

Nov 18, 2020
Song Feng, Hui Wan, Chulaka Gunasekara, Siva Sankalp Patel, Sachindra Joshi, Luis A. Lastras

We introduce doc2dial, a new dataset of goal-oriented dialogues that are grounded in the associated documents. Inspired by how the authors compose documents for guiding end users, we first construct dialogue flows based on the content elements that corresponds to higher-level relations across text sections as well as lower-level relations between discourse units within a section. Then we present these dialogue flows to crowd contributors to create conversational utterances. The dataset includes about 4800 annotated conversations with an average of 14 turns that are grounded in over 480 documents from four domains. Compared to the prior document-grounded dialogue datasets, this dataset covers a variety of dialogue scenes in information-seeking conversations. For evaluating the versatility of the dataset, we introduce multiple dialogue modeling tasks and present baseline approaches.

* EMNLP 2020 

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Multi-Task Sequence Prediction For Tunisian Arabizi Multi-Level Annotation

Nov 10, 2020
Elisa Gugliotta, Marco Dinarelli, Olivier Kraif

In this paper we propose a multi-task sequence prediction system, based on recurrent neural networks and used to annotate on multiple levels an Arabizi Tunisian corpus. The annotation performed are text classification, tokenization, PoS tagging and encoding of Tunisian Arabizi into CODA* Arabic orthography. The system is learned to predict all the annotation levels in cascade, starting from Arabizi input. We evaluate the system on the TIGER German corpus, suitably converting data to have a multi-task problem, in order to show the effectiveness of our neural architecture. We show also how we used the system in order to annotate a Tunisian Arabizi corpus, which has been afterwards manually corrected and used to further evaluate sequence models on Tunisian data. Our system is developed for the Fairseq framework, which allows for a fast and easy use for any other sequence prediction problem.

* Paper accepted at the Fifth Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop (WANLP) 2020 

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Analyzing Political Bias and Unfairness in News Articles at Different Levels of Granularity

Oct 20, 2020
Wei-Fan Chen, Khalid Al-Khatib, Henning Wachsmuth, Benno Stein

Media organizations bear great reponsibility because of their considerable influence on shaping beliefs and positions of our society. Any form of media can contain overly biased content, e.g., by reporting on political events in a selective or incomplete manner. A relevant question hence is whether and how such form of imbalanced news coverage can be exposed. The research presented in this paper addresses not only the automatic detection of bias but goes one step further in that it explores how political bias and unfairness are manifested linguistically. In this regard we utilize a new corpus of 6964 news articles with labels derived from and develop a neural model for bias assessment. By analyzing this model on article excerpts, we find insightful bias patterns at different levels of text granularity, from single words to the whole article discourse.

* NLP+CSS 2020 

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Grammatical Error Correction in Low Error Density Domains: A New Benchmark and Analyses

Oct 15, 2020
Simon Flachs, Ophélie Lacroix, Helen Yannakoudakis, Marek Rei, Anders Søgaard

Evaluation of grammatical error correction (GEC) systems has primarily focused on essays written by non-native learners of English, which however is only part of the full spectrum of GEC applications. We aim to broaden the target domain of GEC and release CWEB, a new benchmark for GEC consisting of website text generated by English speakers of varying levels of proficiency. Website data is a common and important domain that contains far fewer grammatical errors than learner essays, which we show presents a challenge to state-of-the-art GEC systems. We demonstrate that a factor behind this is the inability of systems to rely on a strong internal language model in low error density domains. We hope this work shall facilitate the development of open-domain GEC models that generalize to different topics and genres.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2020 

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