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"Text": models, code, and papers

Measuring the Novelty of Natural Language Text Using the Conjunctive Clauses of a Tsetlin Machine Text Classifier

Nov 17, 2020
Bimal Bhattarai, Ole-Christoffer Granmo, Lei Jiao

Most supervised text classification approaches assume a closed world, counting on all classes being present in the data at training time. This assumption can lead to unpredictable behaviour during operation, whenever novel, previously unseen, classes appear. Although deep learning-based methods have recently been used for novelty detection, they are challenging to interpret due to their black-box nature. This paper addresses \emph{interpretable} open-world text classification, where the trained classifier must deal with novel classes during operation. To this end, we extend the recently introduced Tsetlin machine (TM) with a novelty scoring mechanism. The mechanism uses the conjunctive clauses of the TM to measure to what degree a text matches the classes covered by the training data. We demonstrate that the clauses provide a succinct interpretable description of known topics, and that our scoring mechanism makes it possible to discern novel topics from the known ones. Empirically, our TM-based approach outperforms seven other novelty detection schemes on three out of five datasets, and performs second and third best on the remaining, with the added benefit of an interpretable propositional logic-based representation.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables 

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SelfText Beyond Polygon: Unconstrained Text Detection with Box Supervision and Dynamic Self-Training

Nov 26, 2020
Weijia Wu, Enze Xie, Ruimao Zhang, Wenhai Wang, Guan Pang, Zhen Li, Hong Zhou, Ping Luo

Although a polygon is a more accurate representation than an upright bounding box for text detection, the annotations of polygons are extremely expensive and challenging. Unlike existing works that employ fully-supervised training with polygon annotations, we propose a novel text detection system termed SelfText Beyond Polygon (SBP) with Bounding Box Supervision (BBS) and Dynamic Self Training (DST), where training a polygon-based text detector with only a limited set of upright bounding box annotations. For BBS, we firstly utilize the synthetic data with character-level annotations to train a Skeleton Attention Segmentation Network (SASN). Then the box-level annotations are adopted to guide the generation of high-quality polygon-liked pseudo labels, which can be used to train any detectors. In this way, our method achieves the same performance as text detectors trained with polygon annotations (i.e., both are 85.0% F-score for PSENet on ICDAR2015 ). For DST, through dynamically removing the false alarms, it is able to leverage limited labeled data as well as massive unlabeled data to further outperform the expensive baseline. We hope SBP can provide a new perspective for text detection to save huge labeling costs.

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Real-Time Scene Text Detection with Differentiable Binarization and Adaptive Scale Fusion

Feb 21, 2022
Minghui Liao, Zhisheng Zou, Zhaoyi Wan, Cong Yao, Xiang Bai

Recently, segmentation-based scene text detection methods have drawn extensive attention in the scene text detection field, because of their superiority in detecting the text instances of arbitrary shapes and extreme aspect ratios, profiting from the pixel-level descriptions. However, the vast majority of the existing segmentation-based approaches are limited to their complex post-processing algorithms and the scale robustness of their segmentation models, where the post-processing algorithms are not only isolated to the model optimization but also time-consuming and the scale robustness is usually strengthened by fusing multi-scale feature maps directly. In this paper, we propose a Differentiable Binarization (DB) module that integrates the binarization process, one of the most important steps in the post-processing procedure, into a segmentation network. Optimized along with the proposed DB module, the segmentation network can produce more accurate results, which enhances the accuracy of text detection with a simple pipeline. Furthermore, an efficient Adaptive Scale Fusion (ASF) module is proposed to improve the scale robustness by fusing features of different scales adaptively. By incorporating the proposed DB and ASF with the segmentation network, our proposed scene text detector consistently achieves state-of-the-art results, in terms of both detection accuracy and speed, on five standard benchmarks.

* Accepted by TPAMI. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1911.08947 

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Contrastive Learning with Adversarial Perturbations for Conditional Text Generation

Jan 13, 2021
Seanie Lee, Dong Bok Lee, Sung Ju Hwang

Recently, sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models with the Transformer architecture have achieved remarkable performance on various conditional text generation tasks, such as machine translation. However, most of them are trained with teacher forcing with the ground truth label given at each time step, without being exposed to incorrectly generated tokens during training, which hurts its generalization to unseen inputs, that is known as the "exposure bias" problem. In this work, we propose to mitigate the conditional text generation problem by contrasting positive pairs with negative pairs, such that the model is exposed to various valid or incorrect perturbations of the inputs, for improved generalization. However, training the model with naive contrastive learning framework using random non-target sequences as negative examples is suboptimal, since they are easily distinguishable from the correct output, especially so with models pretrained with large text corpora. Also, generating positive examples requires domain-specific augmentation heuristics which may not generalize over diverse domains. To tackle this problem, we propose a principled method to generate positive and negative samples for contrastive learning of seq2seq models. Specifically, we generate negative examples by adding small perturbations to the input sequence to minimize its conditional likelihood, and positive examples by adding large perturbations while enforcing it to have a high conditional likelihood. Such "hard" positive and negative pairs generated using our method guides the model to better distinguish correct outputs from incorrect ones. We empirically show that our proposed method significantly improves the generalization of the seq2seq on three text generation tasks - machine translation, text summarization, and question generation.

* preprint. under review 

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ZEN: Pre-training Chinese Text Encoder Enhanced by N-gram Representations

Nov 02, 2019
Shizhe Diao, Jiaxin Bai, Yan Song, Tong Zhang, Yonggang Wang

The pre-training of text encoders normally processes text as a sequence of tokens corresponding to small text units, such as word pieces in English and characters in Chinese. It omits information carried by larger text granularity, and thus the encoders cannot easily adapt to certain combinations of characters. This leads to a loss of important semantic information, which is especially problematic for Chinese because the language does not have explicit word boundaries. In this paper, we propose ZEN, a BERT-based Chinese (Z) text encoder Enhanced by N-gram representations, where different combinations of characters are considered during training. As a result, potential word or phase boundaries are explicitly pre-trained and fine-tuned with the character encoder (BERT). Therefore ZEN incorporates the comprehensive information of both the character sequence and words or phrases it contains. Experimental results illustrated the effectiveness of ZEN on a series of Chinese NLP tasks. We show that ZEN, using less resource than other published encoders, can achieve state-of-the-art performance on most tasks. Moreover, it is shown that reasonable performance can be obtained when ZEN is trained on a small corpus, which is important for applying pre-training techniques to scenarios with limited data. The code and pre-trained models of ZEN are available at

* Natural Language Processing. 11 pages, 7 figures 

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Feature Selection on Noisy Twitter Short Text Messages for Language Identification

Jul 11, 2020
Mohd Zeeshan Ansari, Tanvir Ahmad, Ana Fatima

The task of written language identification involves typically the detection of the languages present in a sample of text. Moreover, a sequence of text may not belong to a single inherent language but also may be mixture of text written in multiple languages. This kind of text is generated in large volumes from social media platforms due to its flexible and user friendly environment. Such text contains very large number of features which are essential for development of statistical, probabilistic as well as other kinds of language models. The large number of features have rich as well as irrelevant and redundant features which have diverse effect over the performance of the learning model. Therefore, feature selection methods are significant in choosing feature that are most relevant for an efficient model. In this article, we basically consider the Hindi-English language identification task as Hindi and English are often two most widely spoken languages of India. We apply different feature selection algorithms across various learning algorithms in order to analyze the effect of the algorithm as well as the number of features on the performance of the task. The methodology focuses on the word level language identification using a novel dataset of 6903 tweets extracted from Twitter. Various n-gram profiles are examined with different feature selection algorithms over many classifiers. Finally, an exhaustive comparative analysis is put forward with respect to the overall experiments conducted for the task.

* International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, Volume-8, Issue-4, Nov 2019 

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Transformer Reasoning Network for Image-Text Matching and Retrieval

Apr 20, 2020
Nicola Messina, Fabrizio Falchi, Andrea Esuli, Giuseppe Amato

Image-text matching is an interesting and fascinating task in modern AI research. Despite the evolution of deep-learning-based image and text processing systems, multi-modal matching remains a challenging problem. In this work, we consider the problem of accurate image-text matching for the task of multi-modal large-scale information retrieval. State-of-the-art results in image-text matching are achieved by inter-playing image and text features from the two different processing pipelines, usually using mutual attention mechanisms. However, this invalidates any chance to extract separate visual and textual features needed for later indexing steps in large-scale retrieval systems. In this regard, we introduce the Transformer Encoder Reasoning Network (TERN), an architecture built upon one of the modern relationship-aware self-attentive architectures, the Transformer Encoder (TE). This architecture is able to separately reason on the two different modalities and to enforce a final common abstract concept space by sharing the weights of the deeper transformer layers. Thanks to this design, the implemented network is able to produce compact and very rich visual and textual features available for the successive indexing step. Experiments are conducted on the MS-COCO dataset, and we evaluate the results using a discounted cumulative gain metric with relevance computed exploiting caption similarities, in order to assess possibly non-exact but relevant search results. We demonstrate that on this metric we are able to achieve state-of-the-art results in the image retrieval task. Our code is freely available at

* Submitted to ICPR 2020 

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Embedding Convolutions for Short Text Extreme Classification with Millions of Labels

Sep 13, 2021
Siddhant Kharbanda, Atmadeep Banerjee, Akash Palrecha, Rohit Babbar

Automatic annotation of short-text data to a large number of target labels, referred to as Short Text Extreme Classification, has recently found numerous applications in prediction of related searches and product recommendation tasks. The conventional usage of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to capture n-grams in text-classification relies heavily on uniformity in word-ordering and the presence of long input sequences to convolve over. However, this is missing in short and unstructured text sequences encountered in search and recommendation. In order to tackle this, we propose an orthogonal approach by recasting the convolution operation to capture coupled semantics along the embedding dimensions, and develop a word-order agnostic embedding enhancement module to deal with the lack of structure in such queries. Benefitting from the computational efficiency of the convolution operation, Embedding Convolutions, when applied on the enriched word embeddings, result in a light-weight and yet powerful encoder (InceptionXML) that is robust to the inherent lack of structure in short-text extreme classification. Towards scaling our model to problems with millions of labels, we also propose InceptionXML+, which addresses the shortcomings of the dynamic hard-negative mining framework in the recently proposed LightXML by improving the alignment between the label-shortlister and extreme classifier. On popular benchmark datasets, we empirically demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art deep extreme classifiers such as Astec by an average of 5% and 8% on the [email protected] and propensity-scored [email protected] metrics respectively.

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Challenges and Limitations with the Metrics Measuring the Complexity of Code-Mixed Text

Jun 18, 2021
Vivek Srivastava, Mayank Singh

Code-mixing is a frequent communication style among multilingual speakers where they mix words and phrases from two different languages in the same utterance of text or speech. Identifying and filtering code-mixed text is a challenging task due to its co-existence with monolingual and noisy text. Over the years, several code-mixing metrics have been extensively used to identify and validate code-mixed text quality. This paper demonstrates several inherent limitations of code-mixing metrics with examples from the already existing datasets that are popularly used across various experiments.

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