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"Text": models, code, and papers

Listen carefully and tell: an audio captioning system based on residual learning and gammatone audio representation

Jul 08, 2020
Sergi Perez-Castanos, Javier Naranjo-Alcazar, Pedro Zuccarello, Maximo Cobos

Automated audio captioning is machine listening task whose goal is to describe an audio using free text. An automated audio captioning system has to be implemented as it accepts an audio as input and outputs as textual description, that is, the caption of the signal. This task can be useful in many applications such as automatic content description or machine-to-machine interaction. In this work, an automatic audio captioning based on residual learning on the encoder phase is proposed. The encoder phase is implemented via different Residual Networks configurations. The decoder phase (create the caption) is run using recurrent layers plus attention mechanism. The audio representation chosen has been Gammatone. Results show that the framework proposed in this work surpass the baseline system in challenge results.

* Submitted to DCASE2020 Workshop, Workshop on Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 

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Detecting Multiword Expression Type Helps Lexical Complexity Assessment

May 12, 2020
Ekaterina Kochmar, Sian Gooding, Matthew Shardlow

Multiword expressions (MWEs) represent lexemes that should be treated as single lexical units due to their idiosyncratic nature. Multiple NLP applications have been shown to benefit from MWE identification, however the research on lexical complexity of MWEs is still an under-explored area. In this work, we re-annotate the Complex Word Identification Shared Task 2018 dataset of Yimam et al. (2017), which provides complexity scores for a range of lexemes, with the types of MWEs. We release the MWE-annotated dataset with this paper, and we believe this dataset represents a valuable resource for the text simplification community. In addition, we investigate which types of expressions are most problematic for native and non-native readers. Finally, we show that a lexical complexity assessment system benefits from the information about MWE types.

* Accepted for publication at LREC 2020 

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Social Biases in NLP Models as Barriers for Persons with Disabilities

May 02, 2020
Ben Hutchinson, Vinodkumar Prabhakaran, Emily Denton, Kellie Webster, Yu Zhong, Stephen Denuyl

Building equitable and inclusive NLP technologies demands consideration of whether and how social attitudes are represented in ML models. In particular, representations encoded in models often inadvertently perpetuate undesirable social biases from the data on which they are trained. In this paper, we present evidence of such undesirable biases towards mentions of disability in two different English language models: toxicity prediction and sentiment analysis. Next, we demonstrate that the neural embeddings that are the critical first step in most NLP pipelines similarly contain undesirable biases towards mentions of disability. We end by highlighting topical biases in the discourse about disability which may contribute to the observed model biases; for instance, gun violence, homelessness, and drug addiction are over-represented in texts discussing mental illness.

* ACL 2020 
* ACL 2020 short paper. 5 pages 

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Semi-Supervised Neural System for Tagging, Parsing and Lematization

Apr 26, 2020
Piotr Rybak, Alina Wróblewska

This paper describes the ICS PAS system which took part in CoNLL 2018 shared task on Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies. The system consists of jointly trained tagger, lemmatizer, and dependency parser which are based on features extracted by a biLSTM network. The system uses both fully connected and dilated convolutional neural architectures. The novelty of our approach is the use of an additional loss function, which reduces the number of cycles in the predicted dependency graphs, and the use of self-training to increase the system performance. The proposed system, i.e. ICS PAS (Warszawa), ranked 3th/4th in the official evaluation obtaining the following overall results: 73.02 (LAS), 60.25 (MLAS) and 64.44 (BLEX).


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Large-scale analysis of grooming in modern social networks

Apr 16, 2020
Nikolaos Lykousas, Constantinos Patsakis

Social networks are evolving to engage their users more by providing them with more functionalities. One of the most attracting ones is streaming. Users may broadcast part of their daily lives to thousands of others world-wide and interact with them in real-time. Unfortunately, this feature is reportedly exploited for grooming. In this work, we provide the first in-depth analysis of this problem for social live streaming services. More precisely, using a dataset that we collected, we identify predatory behaviours and grooming on chats that bypassed the moderation mechanisms of the LiveMe, the service under investigation. Beyond the traditional text approaches, we also investigate the relevance of emojis in this context, as well as the user interactions through the gift mechanisms of LiveMe. Finally, our analysis indicates the possibility of grooming towards minors, showing the extent of the problem in such platforms.

* Pre-print. Under Review. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1911.08370 by other authors 

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Ontology-based Interpretable Machine Learning for Textual Data

Apr 01, 2020
Phung Lai, NhatHai Phan, Han Hu, Anuja Badeti, David Newman, Dejing Dou

In this paper, we introduce a novel interpreting framework that learns an interpretable model based on an ontology-based sampling technique to explain agnostic prediction models. Different from existing approaches, our algorithm considers contextual correlation among words, described in domain knowledge ontologies, to generate semantic explanations. To narrow down the search space for explanations, which is a major problem of long and complicated text data, we design a learnable anchor algorithm, to better extract explanations locally. A set of regulations is further introduced, regarding combining learned interpretable representations with anchors to generate comprehensible semantic explanations. An extensive experiment conducted on two real-world datasets shows that our approach generates more precise and insightful explanations compared with baseline approaches.

* Accepted by IJCNN 2020 

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Vocabulary-based Method for Quantifying Controversy in Social Media

Jan 14, 2020
Juan Manuel Ortiz de Zarate, Esteban Feuerstein

Identifying controversial topics is not only interesting from a social point of view, it also enables the application of methods to avoid the information segregation, creating better discussion contexts and reaching agreements in the best cases. In this paper we develop a systematic method for controversy detection based primarily on the jargon used by the communities in social media. Our method dispenses with the use of domain-specific knowledge, is language-agnostic, efficient and easy to apply. We perform an extensive set of experiments across many languages, regions and contexts, taking controversial and non-controversial topics. We find that our vocabulary-based measure performs better than state of the art measures that are based only on the community graph structure. Moreover, we shows that it is possible to detect polarization through text analysis.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1507.05224 by other authors 

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Sideways Transliteration: How to Transliterate Multicultural Person Names?

Nov 27, 2019
Raphael Cohen, Michael Elhadad

In a global setting, texts contain transliterated names from many cultural origins. Correct transliteration depends not only on target and source languages but also, on the source language of the name. We introduce a novel methodology for transliteration of names originating in different languages using only monolingual resources. Our method is based on a step of noisy transliteration and then ranking of the results based on origin specific letter models. The transliteration table used for noisy generation is learned in an unsupervised manner for each possible origin language. We present a solution for gathering monolingual training data used by our method by mining of social media sites such as Facebook and Wikipedia. We present results in the context of transliterating from English to Hebrew and provide an online web service for transliteration from English to Hebrew

* Rejected from a bunch of conferences - but submitted due to popular demand 

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Probing the Information Encoded in X-vectors

Sep 30, 2019
Desh Raj, David Snyder, Daniel Povey, Sanjeev Khudanpur

Deep neural network based speaker embeddings, such as x-vectors, have been shown to perform well in text-independent speaker recognition/verification tasks. In this paper, we use simple classifiers to investigate the contents encoded by x-vector embeddings. We probe these embeddings for information related to the speaker, channel, transcription (sentence, words, phones), and meta information about the utterance (duration and augmentation type), and compare these with the information encoded by i-vectors across a varying number of dimensions. We also study the effect of data augmentation during extractor training on the information captured by x-vectors. Experiments on the RedDots data set show that x-vectors capture spoken content and channel-related information, while performing well on speaker verification tasks.

* Accepted at IEEE Workshop on Automatic Speech Recognition and Understanding (ASRU) 2019 

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