A text-to-speech (TTS) model typically factorizes speech attributes such as content, speaker and prosody into disentangled representations.Recent works aim to additionally model the acoustic conditions explicitly, in order to disentangle the primary speech factors, i.e. linguistic content, prosody and timbre from any residual factors, such as recording conditions and background noise.This paper proposes unsupervised, interpretable and fine-grained noise and prosody modeling. We incorporate adversarial training, representation bottleneck and utterance-to-frame modeling in order to learn frame-level noise representations. To the same end, we perform fine-grained prosody modeling via a Fully Hierarchical Variational AutoEncoder (FVAE) which additionally results in more expressive speech synthesis.
Given the increasing number of livestreaming videos, automatic speech recognition and post-processing for livestreaming video transcripts are crucial for efficient data management as well as knowledge mining. A key step in this process is punctuation restoration which restores fundamental text structures such as phrase and sentence boundaries from the video transcripts. This work presents a new human-annotated corpus, called BehancePR, for punctuation restoration in livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments on BehancePR demonstrate the challenges of punctuation restoration for this domain. Furthermore, we show that popular natural language processing toolkits are incapable of detecting sentence boundary on non-punctuated transcripts of livestreaming videos, calling for more research effort to develop robust models for this area.
Modern end-to-end speech recognition models show astonishing results in transcribing audio signals into written text. However, conventional data feeding pipelines may be sub-optimal for low-resource speech recognition, which still remains a challenging task. We propose an automated curriculum learning approach to optimize the sequence of training examples based on both the progress of the model while training and prior knowledge about the difficulty of the training examples. We introduce a new difficulty measure called compression ratio that can be used as a scoring function for raw audio in various noise conditions. The proposed method improves speech recognition Word Error Rate performance by up to 33% relative over the baseline system
Query-focused summarization (QFS) requires generating a textual summary given a query using a set of relevant documents. However, in practice, such relevant documents are not readily available but should be first retrieved from a document collection. Therefore, we show how to extend this task to make it more realistic. Thereby the task setup also resembles the settings of the open-domain question answering task, where the answer is a summary of the top-retrieved documents. To address this extended task, we combine passage retrieval with text generation to produce the summary of the retrieved passages given the input query. We demonstrate the first evaluation results on the proposed task and show that a few samples are sufficient to fine-tune a large generative model with retrieved passages.
This paper summarizes the main findings of the ADoBo 2021 shared task, proposed in the context of IberLef 2021. In this task, we invited participants to detect lexical borrowings (coming mostly from English) in Spanish newswire texts. This task was framed as a sequence classification problem using BIO encoding. We provided participants with an annotated corpus of lexical borrowings which we split into training, development and test splits. We received submissions from 4 teams with 9 different system runs overall. The results, which range from F1 scores of 37 to 85, suggest that this is a challenging task, especially when out-of-domain or OOV words are considered, and that traditional methods informed with lexicographic information would benefit from taking advantage of current NLP trends.
Neural machine learning models can successfully model language that is similar to their training distribution, but they are highly susceptible to degradation under distribution shift, which occurs in many practical applications when processing out-of-domain (OOD) text. This has been attributed to "shortcut learning": relying on weak correlations over arbitrary large contexts. We propose a method based on OOD detection with Random Network Distillation to allow an autoregressive language model to automatically disregard OOD context during inference, smoothly transitioning towards a less expressive but more robust model as the data becomes more OOD while retaining its full context capability when operating in-distribution. We apply our method to a GRU architecture, demonstrating improvements on multiple language modeling (LM) datasets.
Emotion recognition from text is a challenging task due to diverse emotion taxonomies, lack of reliable labeled data in different domains, and highly subjective annotation standards. Few-shot and zero-shot techniques can generalize across unseen emotions by projecting the documents and emotion labels onto a shared embedding space. In this work, we explore the task of few-shot emotion recognition by transferring the knowledge gained from supervision on the GoEmotions Reddit dataset to the SemEval tweets corpus, using different emotion representation methods. The results show that knowledge transfer using external knowledge bases and fine-tuned encoders perform comparably as supervised baselines, requiring minimal supervision from the task dataset.
The decade from 2010 to 2020 saw remarkable improvements in automatic speech recognition. Many people now use speech recognition on a daily basis, for example to perform voice search queries, send text messages, and interact with voice assistants like Amazon Alexa and Siri by Apple. Before 2010 most people rarely used speech recognition. Given the remarkable changes in the state of speech recognition over the previous decade, what can we expect over the coming decade? I attempt to forecast the state of speech recognition research and applications by the year 2030. While the changes to general speech recognition accuracy will not be as dramatic as in the previous decade, I suggest we have an exciting decade of progress in speech technology ahead of us.
Conversational machine reading (CMR) tools have seen a rapid progress in the recent past. The current existing tools rely on the supervised learning technique which require labeled dataset for their training. The supervised technique necessitates that for every new rule text, a manually labeled dataset must be created. This is tedious and error prone. This paper introduces and demonstrates how unsupervised learning technique can be applied in the development of CMR. Specifically, we demonstrate how unsupervised learning can be used in rule extraction and entailment modules of CMR. Compared to the current best CMR tool, our developed framework reports 3.3% improvement in micro averaged accuracy and 1.4 % improvement in macro averaged accuracy.
We are addressing two fundamental problems in authorship verification (AV): Topic variability and miscalibration. Variations in the topic of two disputed texts are a major cause of error for most AV systems. In addition, it is observed that the underlying probability estimates produced by deep learning AV mechanisms oftentimes do not match the actual case counts in the respective training data. As such, probability estimates are poorly calibrated. We are expanding our framework from PAN 2020 to include Bayes factor scoring (BFS) and an uncertainty adaptation layer (UAL) to address both problems. Experiments with the 2020/21 PAN AV shared task data show that the proposed method significantly reduces sensitivities to topical variations and significantly improves the system's calibration.