We explore two techniques which use color to make sense of statistical text models. One method uses in-text annotations to illustrate a model's view of particular tokens in particular documents. Another uses a high-level, "words-as-pixels" graphic to display an entire corpus. Together, these methods offer both zoomed-in and zoomed-out perspectives into a model's understanding of text. We show how these interconnected methods help diagnose a classifier's poor performance on Twitter slang, and make sense of a topic model on historical political texts.
We show how text from news articles can be used to predict intraday price movements of financial assets using support vector machines. Multiple kernel learning is used to combine equity returns with text as predictive features to increase classification performance and we develop an analytic center cutting plane method to solve the kernel learning problem efficiently. We observe that while the direction of returns is not predictable using either text or returns, their size is, with text features producing significantly better performance than historical returns alone.
Self-supervised pre-training techniques have achieved remarkable progress in Document AI. Most multimodal pre-trained models use a masked language modeling objective to learn bidirectional representations on the text modality, but they differ in pre-training objectives for the image modality. This discrepancy adds difficulty to multimodal representation learning. In this paper, we propose LayoutLMv3 to pre-train multimodal Transformers for Document AI with unified text and image masking. Additionally, LayoutLMv3 is pre-trained with a word-patch alignment objective to learn cross-modal alignment by predicting whether the corresponding image patch of a text word is masked. The simple unified architecture and training objectives make LayoutLMv3 a general-purpose pre-trained model for both text-centric and image-centric Document AI tasks. Experimental results show that LayoutLMv3 achieves state-of-the-art performance not only in text-centric tasks, including form understanding, receipt understanding, and document visual question answering, but also in image-centric tasks such as document image classification and document layout analysis. The code and models are publicly available at https://aka.ms/layoutlmv3.
Deep pre-trained language models (e,g. BERT) are effective at large-scale text retrieval task. Existing text retrieval systems with state-of-the-art performance usually adopt a retrieve-then-reranking architecture due to the high computational cost of pre-trained language models and the large corpus size. Under such a multi-stage architecture, previous studies mainly focused on optimizing single stage of the framework thus improving the overall retrieval performance. However, how to directly couple multi-stage features for optimization has not been well studied. In this paper, we design Hybrid List Aware Transformer Reranking (HLATR) as a subsequent reranking module to incorporate both retrieval and reranking stage features. HLATR is lightweight and can be easily parallelized with existing text retrieval systems so that the reranking process can be performed in a single yet efficient processing. Empirical experiments on two large-scale text retrieval datasets show that HLATR can efficiently improve the ranking performance of existing multi-stage text retrieval methods.
Text classification is a fundamental task for text data mining. In order to train a generalizable model, a large volume of text must be collected. To address data insufficiency, cross-lingual data may occasionally be necessary. Cross-lingual data sources may however suffer from data incompatibility, as text written in different languages can hold distinct word sequences and semantic patterns. Machine translation and word embedding alignment provide an effective way to transform and combine data for cross-lingual data training. To the best of our knowledge, there has been little work done on evaluating how the methodology used to conduct semantic space transformation and data combination affects the performance of classification models trained from cross-lingual resources. In this paper, we systematically evaluated the performance of two commonly used CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) text classifiers with differing data transformation and combination strategies. Monolingual models were trained from English and French alongside their translated and aligned embeddings. Our results suggested that semantic space transformation may conditionally promote the performance of monolingual models. Bilingual models were trained from a combination of both English and French. Our results indicate that a cross-lingual classification model can significantly benefit from cross-lingual data by learning from translated or aligned embedding spaces.
Robust text reading from street view images provides valuable information for various applications. Performance improvement of existing methods in such a challenging scenario heavily relies on the amount of fully annotated training data, which is costly and in-efficient to obtain. To scale up the amount of training data while keeping the labeling procedure cost-effective, this competition introduces a new challenge on Large-scale Street View Text with Partial Labeling (LSVT), providing 50, 000 and 400, 000 images in full and weak annotations, respectively. This competition aims to explore the abilities of state-of-the-art methods to detect and recognize text instances from large-scale street view images, closing the gap between research benchmarks and real applications. During the competition period, a total of 41 teams participated in the two proposed tasks with 132 valid submissions, i.e., text detection and end-to-end text spotting. This paper includes dataset descriptions, task definitions, evaluation protocols and results summaries of the ICDAR 2019-LSVT challenge.
Optical character recognition (OCR) systems performance have improved significantly in the deep learning era. This is especially true for handwritten text recognition (HTR), where each author has a unique style, unlike printed text, where the variation is smaller by design. That said, deep learning based HTR is limited, as in every other task, by the number of training examples. Gathering data is a challenging and costly task, and even more so, the labeling task that follows, of which we focus here. One possible approach to reduce the burden of data annotation is semi-supervised learning. Semi supervised methods use, in addition to labeled data, some unlabeled samples to improve performance, compared to fully supervised ones. Consequently, such methods may adapt to unseen images during test time. We present ScrabbleGAN, a semi-supervised approach to synthesize handwritten text images that are versatile both in style and lexicon. ScrabbleGAN relies on a novel generative model which can generate images of words with an arbitrary length. We show how to operate our approach in a semi-supervised manner, enjoying the aforementioned benefits such as performance boost over state of the art supervised HTR. Furthermore, our generator can manipulate the resulting text style. This allows us to change, for instance, whether the text is cursive, or how thin is the pen stroke.
In this paper, a text line identification method is proposed. The text lines of printed document are easy to segment due to uniform straightness of the lines and sufficient gap between the lines. But in handwritten documents, the line is non-uniform and interline gaps are variable. We take Rabindranath Tagore's manuscript as it is one of the most difficult manuscripts that contain doodles. Our method consists of a pre-processing stage to clean the document image. Then we separate doodles from the manuscript to get the textual region. After that we identify the text lines on the manuscript. For text line identification, we use window examination, black run-length smearing, horizontal histogram and connected component analysis.
Text normalization, defined as a procedure transforming non standard words to spoken-form words, is crucial to the intelligibility of synthesized speech in text-to-speech system. Rule-based methods without considering context can not eliminate ambiguation, whereas sequence-to-sequence neural network based methods suffer from the unexpected and uninterpretable errors problem. Recently proposed hybrid system treats rule-based model and neural model as two cascaded sub-modules, where limited interaction capability makes neural network model cannot fully utilize expert knowledge contained in the rules. Inspired by Flat-LAttice Transformer (FLAT), we propose an end-to-end Chinese text normalization model, which accepts Chinese characters as direct input and integrates expert knowledge contained in rules into the neural network, both contribute to the superior performance of proposed model for the text normalization task. We also release a first publicly accessible largescale dataset for Chinese text normalization. Our proposed model has achieved excellent results on this dataset.
In neural text-to-speech (TTS), two-stage system or a cascade of separately learned models have shown synthesis quality close to human speech. For example, FastSpeech2 transforms an input text to a mel-spectrogram and then HiFi-GAN generates a raw waveform from a mel-spectogram where they are called an acoustic feature generator and a neural vocoder respectively. However, their training pipeline is somewhat cumbersome in that it requires a fine-tuning and an accurate speech-text alignment for optimal performance. In this work, we present end-to-end text-to-speech (E2E-TTS) model which has a simplified training pipeline and outperforms a cascade of separately learned models. Specifically, our proposed model is jointly trained FastSpeech2 and HiFi-GAN with an alignment module. Since there is no acoustic feature mismatch between training and inference, it does not requires fine-tuning. Furthermore, we remove dependency on an external speech-text alignment tool by adopting an alignment learning objective in our joint training framework. Experiments on LJSpeech corpus shows that the proposed model outperforms publicly available, state-of-the-art implementations of ESPNet2-TTS on subjective evaluation (MOS) and some objective evaluations.