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Generative Adversarial Network Applications in Creating a Meta-Universe

Jan 23, 2022
Soheyla Amirian, Thiab R. Taha, Khaled Rasheed, Hamid R. Arabnia

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are machine learning methods that are used in many important and novel applications. For example, in imaging science, GANs are effectively utilized in generating image datasets, photographs of human faces, image and video captioning, image-to-image translation, text-to-image translation, video prediction, and 3D object generation to name a few. In this paper, we discuss how GANs can be used to create an artificial world. More specifically, we discuss how GANs help to describe an image utilizing image/video captioning methods and how to translate the image to a new image using image-to-image translation frameworks in a theme we desire. We articulate how GANs impact creating a customized world.

* Computational Science and Computational Intelligence; 2021 International Conference on IEEE CPS (IEEE XPLORE, Scopus), IEEE, 2021 

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Spoiler in a Textstack: How Much Can Transformers Help?

Dec 24, 2021
Anna Wróblewska, Paweł Rzepiński, Sylwia Sysko-Romańczuk

This paper presents our research regarding spoiler detection in reviews. In this use case, we describe the method of fine-tuning and organizing the available text-based model tasks with the latest deep learning achievements and techniques to interpret the models' results. Until now, spoiler research has been rarely described in the literature. We tested the transfer learning approach and different latest transformer architectures on two open datasets with annotated spoilers (ROC AUC above 81\% on TV Tropes Movies dataset, and Goodreads dataset above 88\%). We also collected data and assembled a new dataset with fine-grained annotations. To that end, we employed interpretability techniques and measures to assess the models' reliability and explain their results.


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DEBACER: a method for slicing moderated debates

Dec 10, 2021
Thomas Palmeira Ferraz, Alexandre Alcoforado, Enzo Bustos, André Seidel Oliveira, Rodrigo Gerber, Naíde Müller, André Corrêa d'Almeida, Bruno Miguel Veloso, Anna Helena Reali Costa

Subjects change frequently in moderated debates with several participants, such as in parliamentary sessions, electoral debates, and trials. Partitioning a debate into blocks with the same subject is essential for understanding. Often a moderator is responsible for defining when a new block begins so that the task of automatically partitioning a moderated debate can focus solely on the moderator's behavior. In this paper, we (i) propose a new algorithm, DEBACER, which partitions moderated debates; (ii) carry out a comparative study between conventional and BERTimbau pipelines; and (iii) validate DEBACER applying it to the minutes of the Assembly of the Republic of Portugal. Our results show the effectiveness of DEBACER. Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Political Documents, Spoken Text Processing, Speech Split, Dialogue Partitioning.

* in Anais do XVIII Encontro Nacional de Intelig\^encia Artificial e Computacional, Evento Online, 2021, pp. 667-678 
* Accepted on The 18th National Meeting on Artificial and Computational Intelligence (ENIAC 2021) 

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Automated Story Generation as Question-Answering

Dec 07, 2021
Louis Castricato, Spencer Frazier, Jonathan Balloch, Nitya Tarakad, Mark Riedl

Neural language model-based approaches to automated story generation suffer from two important limitations. First, language model-based story generators generally do not work toward a given goal or ending. Second, they often lose coherence as the story gets longer. We propose a novel approach to automated story generation that treats the problem as one of generative question-answering. Our proposed story generation system starts with sentences encapsulating the final event of the story. The system then iteratively (1) analyzes the text describing the most recent event, (2) generates a question about "why" a character is doing the thing they are doing in the event, and then (3) attempts to generate another, preceding event that answers this question.


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Improvement in Machine Translation with Generative Adversarial Networks

Nov 30, 2021
Jay Ahn, Hari Madhu, Viet Nguyen

In this paper, we explore machine translation improvement via Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture. We take inspiration from RelGAN, a model for text generation, and NMT-GAN, an adversarial machine translation model, to implement a model that learns to transform awkward, non-fluent English sentences to fluent ones, while only being trained on monolingual corpora. We utilize a parameter $\lambda$ to control the amount of deviation from the input sentence, i.e. a trade-off between keeping the original tokens and modifying it to be more fluent. Our results improved upon phrase-based machine translation in some cases. Especially, GAN with a transformer generator shows some promising results. We suggests some directions for future works to build upon this proof-of-concept.


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Leveraging Sentiment Analysis Knowledge to Solve Emotion Detection Tasks

Nov 05, 2021
Maude Nguyen-The, Guillaume-Alexandre Bilodeau, Jan Rockemann

Identifying and understanding underlying sentiment or emotions in text is a key component of multiple natural language processing applications. While simple polarity sentiment analysis is a well-studied subject, fewer advances have been made in identifying more complex, finer-grained emotions using only textual data. In this paper, we present a Transformer-based model with a Fusion of Adapter layers which leverages knowledge from more simple sentiment analysis tasks to improve the emotion detection task on large scale dataset, such as CMU-MOSEI, using the textual modality only. Results show that our proposed method is competitive with other approaches. We obtained state-of-the-art results for emotion recognition on CMU-MOSEI even while using only the textual modality.


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Battling Hateful Content in Indic Languages HASOC '21

Oct 25, 2021
Aditya Kadam, Anmol Goel, Jivitesh Jain, Jushaan Singh Kalra, Mallika Subramanian, Manvith Reddy, Prashant Kodali, T. H. Arjun, Manish Shrivastava, Ponnurangam Kumaraguru

The extensive rise in consumption of online social media (OSMs) by a large number of people poses a critical problem of curbing the spread of hateful content on these platforms. With the growing usage of OSMs in multiple languages, the task of detecting and characterizing hate becomes more complex. The subtle variations of code-mixed texts along with switching scripts only add to the complexity. This paper presents a solution for the HASOC 2021 Multilingual Twitter Hate-Speech Detection challenge by team PreCog IIIT Hyderabad. We adopt a multilingual transformer based approach and describe our architecture for all 6 sub-tasks as part of the challenge. Out of the 6 teams that participated in all the sub tasks, our submissions rank 3rd overall.

* 12 pages, 6 figures, Accepted at FIRE 2021, CEUR Workshop Proceedings (http://fire.irsi.res.in/fire/2021/home

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AdaLoss: A computationally-efficient and provably convergent adaptive gradient method

Sep 17, 2021
Xiaoxia Wu, Yuege Xie, Simon Du, Rachel Ward

We propose a computationally-friendly adaptive learning rate schedule, "AdaLoss", which directly uses the information of the loss function to adjust the stepsize in gradient descent methods. We prove that this schedule enjoys linear convergence in linear regression. Moreover, we provide a linear convergence guarantee over the non-convex regime, in the context of two-layer over-parameterized neural networks. If the width of the first-hidden layer in the two-layer networks is sufficiently large (polynomially), then AdaLoss converges robustly \emph{to the global minimum} in polynomial time. We numerically verify the theoretical results and extend the scope of the numerical experiments by considering applications in LSTM models for text clarification and policy gradients for control problems.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1902.07111 

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Social Analysis of Young Basque Speaking Communities in Twitter

Sep 08, 2021
J. Fernandez de Landa, R. Agerri

In this paper we take into account both social and linguistic aspects to perform demographic analysis by processing a large amount of tweets in Basque language. The study of demographic characteristics and social relationships are approached by applying machine learning and modern deep-learning Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, combining social sciences with automatic text processing. More specifically, our main objective is to combine demographic inference and social analysis in order to detect young Basque Twitter users and to identify the communities that arise from their relationships or shared content. This social and demographic analysis will be entirely based on the~automatically collected tweets using NLP to convert unstructured textual information into interpretable knowledge.

* Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2021) 

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As Easy as 1, 2, 3: Behavioural Testing of NMT Systems for Numerical Translation

Jul 18, 2021
Jun Wang, Chang Xu, Francisco Guzman, Ahmed El-Kishky, Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein, Trevor Cohn

Mistranslated numbers have the potential to cause serious effects, such as financial loss or medical misinformation. In this work we develop comprehensive assessments of the robustness of neural machine translation systems to numerical text via behavioural testing. We explore a variety of numerical translation capabilities a system is expected to exhibit and design effective test examples to expose system underperformance. We find that numerical mistranslation is a general issue: major commercial systems and state-of-the-art research models fail on many of our test examples, for high- and low-resource languages. Our tests reveal novel errors that have not previously been reported in NMT systems, to the best of our knowledge. Lastly, we discuss strategies to mitigate numerical mistranslation.

* Findings of ACL, to appear 

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