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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Enhance Long Text Understanding via Distilled Gist Detector from Abstractive Summarization

Oct 10, 2021
Yan Liu, Yazheng Yang

Long text understanding is important yet challenging in natural language processing. A long article or essay usually contains many redundant words that are not pertinent to its gist and sometimes can be regarded as noise. In this paper, we consider the problem of how to disentangle the gist-relevant and irrelevant information for long text understanding. With distillation mechanism, we transfer the knowledge about how to focus the salient parts from the abstractive summarization model and further integrate the distilled model, named \emph{Gist Detector}, into existing models as a supplementary component to augment the long text understanding. Experiments on document classification, distantly supervised open-domain question answering (DS-QA) and non-parallel text style transfer show that our method can significantly improve the performance of the baseline models, and achieves state-of-the-art overall results for document classification.


Fooling Explanations in Text Classifiers

Jun 07, 2022
Adam Ivankay, Ivan Girardi, Chiara Marchiori, Pascal Frossard

State-of-the-art text classification models are becoming increasingly reliant on deep neural networks (DNNs). Due to their black-box nature, faithful and robust explanation methods need to accompany classifiers for deployment in real-life scenarios. However, it has been shown in vision applications that explanation methods are susceptible to local, imperceptible perturbations that can significantly alter the explanations without changing the predicted classes. We show here that the existence of such perturbations extends to text classifiers as well. Specifically, we introduceTextExplanationFooler (TEF), a novel explanation attack algorithm that alters text input samples imperceptibly so that the outcome of widely-used explanation methods changes considerably while leaving classifier predictions unchanged. We evaluate the performance of the attribution robustness estimation performance in TEF on five sequence classification datasets, utilizing three DNN architectures and three transformer architectures for each dataset. TEF can significantly decrease the correlation between unchanged and perturbed input attributions, which shows that all models and explanation methods are susceptible to TEF perturbations. Moreover, we evaluate how the perturbations transfer to other model architectures and attribution methods, and show that TEF perturbations are also effective in scenarios where the target model and explanation method are unknown. Finally, we introduce a semi-universal attack that is able to compute fast, computationally light perturbations with no knowledge of the attacked classifier nor explanation method. Overall, our work shows that explanations in text classifiers are very fragile and users need to carefully address their robustness before relying on them in critical applications.

* International Conference on Learning Representations, 2022 

Short Text Classification via Term Graph

Jan 20, 2020
Wei Pang

Short text classi cation is a method for classifying short sentence with prede ned labels. However, short text is limited in shortness in text length that leads to a challenging problem of sparse features. Most of existing methods treat each short sentences as independently and identically distributed (IID), local context only in the sentence itself is focused and the relational information between sentences are lost. To overcome these limitations, we propose a PathWalk model that combine the strength of graph networks and short sentences to solve the sparseness of short text. Experimental results on four different available datasets show that our PathWalk method achieves the state-of-the-art results, demonstrating the efficiency and robustness of graph networks for short text classification.

* 9 pages, 15 figures, Short Text Classification, Term Graph 

Exploiting Dynamic and Fine-grained Semantic Scope for Extreme Multi-label Text Classification

May 24, 2022
Yuan Wang, Huiling Song, Peng Huo, Tao Xu, Jucheng Yang, Yarui Chen, Tingting Zhao

Extreme multi-label text classification (XMTC) refers to the problem of tagging a given text with the most relevant subset of labels from a large label set. A majority of labels only have a few training instances due to large label dimensionality in XMTC. To solve this data sparsity issue, most existing XMTC methods take advantage of fixed label clusters obtained in early stage to balance performance on tail labels and head labels. However, such label clusters provide static and coarse-grained semantic scope for every text, which ignores distinct characteristics of different texts and has difficulties modelling accurate semantics scope for texts with tail labels. In this paper, we propose a novel framework TReaderXML for XMTC, which adopts dynamic and fine-grained semantic scope from teacher knowledge for individual text to optimize text conditional prior category semantic ranges. TReaderXML dynamically obtains teacher knowledge for each text by similar texts and hierarchical label information in training sets to release the ability of distinctly fine-grained label-oriented semantic scope. Then, TReaderXML benefits from a novel dual cooperative network that firstly learns features of a text and its corresponding label-oriented semantic scope by parallel Encoding Module and Reading Module, secondly embeds two parts by Interaction Module to regularize the text's representation by dynamic and fine-grained label-oriented semantic scope, and finally find target labels by Prediction Module. Experimental results on three XMTC benchmark datasets show that our method achieves new state-of-the-art results and especially performs well for severely imbalanced and sparse datasets.


A Chinese Text Classification Method With Low Hardware Requirement Based on Improved Model Concatenation

Oct 28, 2020
Yuanhao Zhuo

In order to improve the accuracy performance of Chinese text classification models with low hardware requirements, an improved concatenation-based model is designed in this paper, which is a concatenation of 5 different sub-models, including TextCNN, LSTM, and Bi-LSTM. Compared with the existing ensemble learning method, for a text classification mission, this model's accuracy is 2% higher. Meanwhile, the hardware requirements of this model are much lower than the BERT-based model.

* 5 pages, 2 figures, 5 tables 

Building for Tomorrow: Assessing the Temporal Persistence of Text Classifiers

May 19, 2022
Rabab Alkhalifa, Elena Kochkina, Arkaitz Zubiaga

Where performance of text classification models drops over time due to changes in data, development of models whose performance persists over time is important. An ability to predict a model's ability to persist over time can help design models that can be effectively used over a longer period of time. In this paper, we look at this problem from a practical perspective by assessing the ability of a wide range of language models and classification algorithms to persist over time, as well as how dataset characteristics can help predict the temporal stability of different models. We perform longitudinal classification experiments on three datasets spanning between 6 and 19 years, and involving diverse tasks and types of data. We find that one can estimate how a model will retain its performance over time based on (i) how well the model performs over a restricted time period and its extrapolation to a longer time period, and (ii) the linguistic characteristics of the dataset, such as the familiarity score between subsets from different years. Findings from these experiments have important implications for the design of text classification models with the aim of preserving performance over time.


Impact of Feature Selection on Micro-Text Classification

Aug 27, 2017
Ankit Vadehra, Maura R. Grossman, Gordon V. Cormack

Social media datasets, especially Twitter tweets, are popular in the field of text classification. Tweets are a valuable source of micro-text (sometimes referred to as "micro-blogs"), and have been studied in domains such as sentiment analysis, recommendation systems, spam detection, clustering, among others. Tweets often include keywords referred to as "Hashtags" that can be used as labels for the tweet. Using tweets encompassing 50 labels, we studied the impact of word versus character-level feature selection and extraction on different learners to solve a multi-class classification task. We show that feature extraction of simple character-level groups performs better than simple word groups and pre-processing methods like normalizing using Porter's Stemming and Part-of-Speech ("POS")-Lemmatization.

* 4 pages, 6 figures 

From Review to Rating: Exploring Dependency Measures for Text Classification

Sep 04, 2017
Samuel Cunningham-Nelson, Mahsa Baktashmotlagh, Wageeh Boles

Various text analysis techniques exist, which attempt to uncover unstructured information from text. In this work, we explore using statistical dependence measures for textual classification, representing text as word vectors. Student satisfaction scores on a 3-point scale and their free text comments written about university subjects are used as the dataset. We have compared two textual representations: a frequency word representation and term frequency relationship to word vectors, and found that word vectors provide a greater accuracy. However, these word vectors have a large number of features which aggravates the burden of computational complexity. Thus, we explored using a non-linear dependency measure for feature selection by maximizing the dependence between the text reviews and corresponding scores. Our quantitative and qualitative analysis on a student satisfaction dataset shows that our approach achieves comparable accuracy to the full feature vector, while being an order of magnitude faster in testing. These text analysis and feature reduction techniques can be used for other textual data applications such as sentiment analysis.

* Under Consideration by Pattern Recognition Letters (PRL) 2018 
* 8 pages 

Text Counterfactuals via Latent Optimization and Shapley-Guided Search

Oct 22, 2021
Quintin Pope, Xiaoli Z. Fern

We study the problem of generating counterfactual text for a classifier as a means for understanding and debugging classification. Given a textual input and a classification model, we aim to minimally alter the text to change the model's prediction. White-box approaches have been successfully applied to similar problems in vision where one can directly optimize the continuous input. Optimization-based approaches become difficult in the language domain due to the discrete nature of text. We bypass this issue by directly optimizing in the latent space and leveraging a language model to generate candidate modifications from optimized latent representations. We additionally use Shapley values to estimate the combinatoric effect of multiple changes. We then use these estimates to guide a beam search for the final counterfactual text. We achieve favorable performance compared to recent white-box and black-box baselines using human and automatic evaluations. Ablation studies show that both latent optimization and the use of Shapley values improve success rate and the quality of the generated counterfactuals.

* 9 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables. Accepted at EMNLP 2021 

Evaluating Various Tokenizers for Arabic Text Classification

Jun 14, 2021
Zaid Alyafeai, Maged S. Al-shaibani, Mustafa Ghaleb, Irfan Ahmad

The first step in any NLP pipeline is learning word vector representations. However, given a large text corpus, representing all the words is not efficient. In the literature, many tokenization algorithms have emerged to tackle this problem by creating subwords which in turn limits the vocabulary size in any text corpus. However such algorithms are mostly language-agnostic and lack a proper way of capturing meaningful tokens. Not to mention the difficulty of evaluating such techniques in practice. In this paper, we introduce three new tokenization algorithms for Arabic and compare them to three other baselines using unsupervised evaluations. In addition to that, we compare all the six algorithms by evaluating them on three tasks which are sentiment analysis, news classification and poetry classification. Our experiments show that the performance of such tokenization algorithms depends on the size of the dataset, type of the task, and the amount of morphology that exists in the dataset.