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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Learning Convolutional Text Representations for Visual Question Answering

Apr 18, 2018
Zhengyang Wang, Shuiwang Ji

Visual question answering is a recently proposed artificial intelligence task that requires a deep understanding of both images and texts. In deep learning, images are typically modeled through convolutional neural networks, and texts are typically modeled through recurrent neural networks. While the requirement for modeling images is similar to traditional computer vision tasks, such as object recognition and image classification, visual question answering raises a different need for textual representation as compared to other natural language processing tasks. In this work, we perform a detailed analysis on natural language questions in visual question answering. Based on the analysis, we propose to rely on convolutional neural networks for learning textual representations. By exploring the various properties of convolutional neural networks specialized for text data, such as width and depth, we present our "CNN Inception + Gate" model. We show that our model improves question representations and thus the overall accuracy of visual question answering models. We also show that the text representation requirement in visual question answering is more complicated and comprehensive than that in conventional natural language processing tasks, making it a better task to evaluate textual representation methods. Shallow models like fastText, which can obtain comparable results with deep learning models in tasks like text classification, are not suitable in visual question answering.

* In proceedings of the 2018 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (pp. 594-602). 2018 
* Conference paper at SDM 2018. 

Enriching BERT with Knowledge Graph Embeddings for Document Classification

Sep 18, 2019
Malte Ostendorff, Peter Bourgonje, Maria Berger, Julian Moreno-Schneider, Georg Rehm, Bela Gipp

In this paper, we focus on the classification of books using short descriptive texts (cover blurbs) and additional metadata. Building upon BERT, a deep neural language model, we demonstrate how to combine text representations with metadata and knowledge graph embeddings, which encode author information. Compared to the standard BERT approach we achieve considerably better results for the classification task. For a more coarse-grained classification using eight labels we achieve an F1- score of 87.20, while a detailed classification using 343 labels yields an F1-score of 64.70. We make the source code and trained models of our experiments publicly available


Semantic Analysis for Automated Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Research Articles

Apr 26, 2021
Neslihan Suzen, Alexander Gorban, Jeremy Levesley, Evgeny Mirkes

Can the analysis of the semantics of words used in the text of a scientific paper predict its future impact measured by citations? This study details examples of automated text classification that achieved 80% success rate in distinguishing between highly-cited and little-cited articles. Automated intelligent systems allow the identification of promising works that could become influential in the scientific community. The problems of quantifying the meaning of texts and representation of human language have been clear since the inception of Natural Language Processing. This paper presents a novel method for vector representation of text meaning based on information theory and show how this informational semantics is used for text classification on the basis of the Leicester Scientific Corpus. We describe the experimental framework used to evaluate the impact of scientific articles through their informational semantics. Our interest is in citation classification to discover how important semantics of texts are in predicting the citation count. We propose the semantics of texts as an important factor for citation prediction. For each article, our system extracts the abstract of paper, represents the words of the abstract as vectors in Meaning Space, automatically analyses the distribution of scientific categories (Web of Science categories) within the text of abstract, and then classifies papers according to citation counts (highly-cited, little-cited). We show that an informational approach to representing the meaning of a text has offered a way to effectively predict the scientific impact of research papers.

* 36 pages 

Text Classification with Novelty Detection

Sep 23, 2020
Qi Qin, Wenpeng Hu, Bing Liu

This paper studies the problem of detecting novel or unexpected instances in text classification. In traditional text classification, the classes appeared in testing must have been seen in training. However, in many applications, this is not the case because in testing, we may see unexpected instances that are not from any of the training classes. In this paper, we propose a significantly more effective approach that converts the original problem to a pair-wise matching problem and then outputs how probable two instances belong to the same class. Under this approach, we present two models. The more effective model uses two embedding matrices of a pair of instances as two channels of a CNN. The output probabilities from such pairs are used to judge whether a test instance is from a seen class or is novel/unexpected. Experimental results show that the proposed method substantially outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.


Matching Images and Text with Multi-modal Tensor Fusion and Re-ranking

Aug 12, 2019
Tan Wang, Xing Xu, Yang Yang, Alan Hanjalic, Heng Tao Shen, Jingkuan Song

A major challenge in matching images and text is that they have intrinsically different data distributions and feature representations. Most existing approaches are based either on embedding or classification, the first one mapping image and text instances into a common embedding space for distance measuring, and the second one regarding image-text matching as a binary classification problem. Neither of these approaches can, however, balance the matching accuracy and model complexity well. We propose a novel framework that achieves remarkable matching performance with acceptable model complexity. Specifically, in the training stage, we propose a novel Multi-modal Tensor Fusion Network (MTFN) to explicitly learn an accurate image-text similarity function with rank-based tensor fusion rather than seeking a common embedding space for each image-text instance. Then, during testing, we deploy a generic Cross-modal Re-ranking (RR) scheme for refinement without requiring additional training procedure. Extensive experiments on two datasets demonstrate that our MTFN-RR consistently achieves the state-of-the-art matching performance with much less time complexity. The implementation code is available at

* 9 pages, 7 figures, ACM Multimedia 2019 

Lexical Features Are More Vulnerable, Syntactic Features Have More Predictive Power

Sep 30, 2019
Jekaterina Novikova, Aparna Balagopalan, Ksenia Shkaruta, Frank Rudzicz

Understanding the vulnerability of linguistic features extracted from noisy text is important for both developing better health text classification models and for interpreting vulnerabilities of natural language models. In this paper, we investigate how generic language characteristics, such as syntax or the lexicon, are impacted by artificial text alterations. The vulnerability of features is analysed from two perspectives: (1) the level of feature value change, and (2) the level of change of feature predictive power as a result of text modifications. We show that lexical features are more sensitive to text modifications than syntactic ones. However, we also demonstrate that these smaller changes of syntactic features have a stronger influence on classification performance downstream, compared to the impact of changes to lexical features. Results are validated across three datasets representing different text-classification tasks, with different levels of lexical and syntactic complexity of both conversational and written language.

* EMNLP Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2019) 

Medical Concept Normalization in User Generated Texts by Learning Target Concept Embeddings

Jun 07, 2020
Katikapalli Subramanyam Kalyan, S. Sangeetha

Medical concept normalization helps in discovering standard concepts in free-form text i.e., maps health-related mentions to standard concepts in a vocabulary. It is much beyond simple string matching and requires a deep semantic understanding of concept mentions. Recent research approach concept normalization as either text classification or text matching. The main drawback in existing a) text classification approaches is ignoring valuable target concepts information in learning input concept mention representation b) text matching approach is the need to separately generate target concept embeddings which is time and resource consuming. Our proposed model overcomes these drawbacks by jointly learning the representations of input concept mention and target concepts. First, it learns the input concept mention representation using RoBERTa. Second, it finds cosine similarity between embeddings of input concept mention and all the target concepts. Here, embeddings of target concepts are randomly initialized and then updated during training. Finally, the target concept with maximum cosine similarity is assigned to the input concept mention. Our model surpasses all the existing methods across three standard datasets by improving accuracy up to 2.31%.

* 5 pages 

An Improvement of Data Classification Using Random Multimodel Deep Learning (RMDL)

Aug 23, 2018
Mojtaba Heidarysafa, Kamran Kowsari, Donald E. Brown, Kiana Jafari Meimandi, Laura E. Barnes

The exponential growth in the number of complex datasets every year requires more enhancement in machine learning methods to provide robust and accurate data classification. Lately, deep learning approaches have achieved surpassing results in comparison to previous machine learning algorithms. However, finding the suitable structure for these models has been a challenge for researchers. This paper introduces Random Multimodel Deep Learning (RMDL): a new ensemble, deep learning approach for classification. RMDL solves the problem of finding the best deep learning structure and architecture while simultaneously improving robustness and accuracy through ensembles of deep learning architectures. In short, RMDL trains multiple randomly generated models of Deep Neural Network (DNN), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) in parallel and combines their results to produce better result of any of those models individually. In this paper, we describe RMDL model and compare the results for image and text classification as well as face recognition. We used MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets as ground truth datasets for image classification and WOS, Reuters, IMDB, and 20newsgroup datasets for text classification. Lastly, we used ORL dataset to compare the model performance on face recognition task.

* published in International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing (IJMLC). arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1805.01890 

Text Length Adaptation in Sentiment Classification

Sep 18, 2019
Reinald Kim Amplayo, Seonjae Lim, Seung-won Hwang

Can a text classifier generalize well for datasets where the text length is different? For example, when short reviews are sentiment-labeled, can these transfer to predict the sentiment of long reviews (i.e., short to long transfer), or vice versa? While unsupervised transfer learning has been well-studied for cross domain/lingual transfer tasks, Cross Length Transfer (CLT) has not yet been explored. One reason is the assumption that length difference is trivially transferable in classification. We show that it is not, because short/long texts differ in context richness and word intensity. We devise new benchmark datasets from diverse domains and languages, and show that existing models from similar tasks cannot deal with the unique challenge of transferring across text lengths. We introduce a strong baseline model called BaggedCNN that treats long texts as bags containing short texts. We propose a state-of-the-art CLT model called Length Transfer Networks (LeTraNets) that introduces a two-way encoding scheme for short and long texts using multiple training mechanisms. We test our models and find that existing models perform worse than the BaggedCNN baseline, while LeTraNets outperforms all models.

* ACML 2019 

Measuring the Novelty of Natural Language Text Using the Conjunctive Clauses of a Tsetlin Machine Text Classifier

Nov 17, 2020
Bimal Bhattarai, Ole-Christoffer Granmo, Lei Jiao

Most supervised text classification approaches assume a closed world, counting on all classes being present in the data at training time. This assumption can lead to unpredictable behaviour during operation, whenever novel, previously unseen, classes appear. Although deep learning-based methods have recently been used for novelty detection, they are challenging to interpret due to their black-box nature. This paper addresses \emph{interpretable} open-world text classification, where the trained classifier must deal with novel classes during operation. To this end, we extend the recently introduced Tsetlin machine (TM) with a novelty scoring mechanism. The mechanism uses the conjunctive clauses of the TM to measure to what degree a text matches the classes covered by the training data. We demonstrate that the clauses provide a succinct interpretable description of known topics, and that our scoring mechanism makes it possible to discern novel topics from the known ones. Empirically, our TM-based approach outperforms seven other novelty detection schemes on three out of five datasets, and performs second and third best on the remaining, with the added benefit of an interpretable propositional logic-based representation.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables