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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Deep Learning Neural Networks for Emotion Classification from Text: Enhanced Leaky Rectified Linear Unit Activation and Weighted Loss

Mar 04, 2022
Hui Yang, Abeer Alsadoon, P. W. C. Prasad, Thair Al-Dala'in, Tarik A. Rashid, Angelika Maag, Omar Hisham Alsadoon

Accurate emotion classification for online reviews is vital for business organizations to gain deeper insights into markets. Although deep learning has been successfully implemented in this area, accuracy and processing time are still major problems preventing it from reaching its full potential. This paper proposes an Enhanced Leaky Rectified Linear Unit activation and Weighted Loss (ELReLUWL) algorithm for enhanced text emotion classification and faster parameter convergence speed. This algorithm includes the definition of the inflection point and the slope for inputs on the left side of the inflection point to avoid gradient saturation. It also considers the weight of samples belonging to each class to compensate for the influence of data imbalance. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) combined with the proposed algorithm to increase the classification accuracy and decrease the processing time by eliminating the gradient saturation problem and minimizing the negative effect of data imbalance, demonstrated on a binary sentiment problem. The results show that the proposed solution achieves better classification performance in different data scenarios and different review types. The proposed model takes less convergence time to achieve model optimization with seven epochs against the current convergence time of 11.5 epochs on average. The proposed solution improves accuracy and reduces the processing time of text emotion classification. The solution provides an average class accuracy of 96.63% against a current average accuracy of 91.56%. It also provides a processing time of 23.3 milliseconds compared to the current average processing time of 33.2 milliseconds. Finally, this study solves the issues of gradient saturation and data imbalance. It enhances overall average class accuracy and decreases processing time.

* Multimed Tools Appl.,2022 
* 28 pages 
  

End to End Binarized Neural Networks for Text Classification

Oct 11, 2020
Harshil Jain, Akshat Agarwal, Kumar Shridhar, Denis Kleyko

Deep neural networks have demonstrated their superior performance in almost every Natural Language Processing task, however, their increasing complexity raises concerns. In particular, these networks require high expenses on computational hardware, and training budget is a concern for many. Even for a trained network, the inference phase can be too demanding for resource-constrained devices, thus limiting its applicability. The state-of-the-art transformer models are a vivid example. Simplifying the computations performed by a network is one way of relaxing the complexity requirements. In this paper, we propose an end to end binarized neural network architecture for the intent classification task. In order to fully utilize the potential of end to end binarization, both input representations (vector embeddings of tokens statistics) and the classifier are binarized. We demonstrate the efficiency of such architecture on the intent classification of short texts over three datasets and for text classification with a larger dataset. The proposed architecture achieves comparable to the state-of-the-art results on standard intent classification datasets while utilizing ~ 20-40% lesser memory and training time. Furthermore, the individual components of the architecture, such as binarized vector embeddings of documents or binarized classifiers, can be used separately with not necessarily fully binary architectures.

* 14 pages. Accepted at the SustaiNLP Workshop on Simple and Efficient Natural Language Processing at EMNLP 2020 
  

Multi-label Dataless Text Classification with Topic Modeling

Nov 05, 2017
Daochen Zha, Chenliang Li

Manually labeling documents is tedious and expensive, but it is essential for training a traditional text classifier. In recent years, a few dataless text classification techniques have been proposed to address this problem. However, existing works mainly center on single-label classification problems, that is, each document is restricted to belonging to a single category. In this paper, we propose a novel Seed-guided Multi-label Topic Model, named SMTM. With a few seed words relevant to each category, SMTM conducts multi-label classification for a collection of documents without any labeled document. In SMTM, each category is associated with a single category-topic which covers the meaning of the category. To accommodate with multi-labeled documents, we explicitly model the category sparsity in SMTM by using spike and slab prior and weak smoothing prior. That is, without using any threshold tuning, SMTM automatically selects the relevant categories for each document. To incorporate the supervision of the seed words, we propose a seed-guided biased GPU (i.e., generalized Polya urn) sampling procedure to guide the topic inference of SMTM. Experiments on two public datasets show that SMTM achieves better classification accuracy than state-of-the-art alternatives and even outperforms supervised solutions in some scenarios.

  

Rank over Class: The Untapped Potential of Ranking in Natural Language Processing

Sep 20, 2020
Amir Atapour-Abarghouei, Stephen Bonner, Andrew Stephen McGough

Text classification has long been a staple in natural language processing with applications spanning across sentiment analysis, online content tagging, recommender systems and spam detection. However, text classification, by nature, suffers from a variety of issues stemming from dataset imbalance, text ambiguity, subjectivity and the lack of linguistic context in the data. In this paper, we explore the use of text ranking, commonly used in information retrieval, to carry out challenging classification-based tasks. We propose a novel end-to-end ranking approach consisting of a Transformer network responsible for producing representations for a pair of text sequences, which are in turn passed into a context aggregating network outputting ranking scores used to determine an ordering to the sequences based on some notion of relevance. We perform numerous experiments on publicly-available datasets and investigate the possibility of applying our ranking approach to certain problems often addressed using classification. In an experiment on a heavily-skewed sentiment analysis dataset, converting ranking results to classification labels yields an approximately 22% improvement over state-of-the-art text classification, demonstrating the efficacy of text ranking over text classification in certain scenarios.

  

Constructing Contrastive samples via Summarization for Text Classification with limited annotations

Apr 11, 2021
Yangkai Du, Tengfei Ma, Lingfei Wu, Fangli Xu, Xuhong Zhang, Shouling Ji

Contrastive Learning has emerged as a powerful representation learning method and facilitates various downstream tasks especially when supervised data is limited. How to construct efficient contrastive samples through data augmentation is key to its success. Unlike vision tasks, the data augmentation method for contrastive learning has not been investigated sufficiently in language tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to constructing contrastive samples for language tasks using text summarization. We use these samples for supervised contrastive learning to gain better text representations which greatly benefit text classification tasks with limited annotations. To further improve the method, we mix up samples from different classes and add an extra regularization, named mix-sum regularization, in addition to the cross-entropy-loss. Experiments on real-world text classification datasets (Amazon-5, Yelp-5, AG News) demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed contrastive learning framework with summarization-based data augmentation and mix-sum regularization.

  

TNT: Text-Conditioned Network with Transductive Inference for Few-Shot Video Classification

Jun 21, 2021
Andrés Villa, Juan-Manuel Perez-Rua, Vladimir Araujo, Juan Carlos Niebles, Victor Escorcia, Alvaro Soto

Recently, few-shot learning has received increasing interest. Existing efforts have been focused on image classification, with very few attempts dedicated to the more challenging few-shot video classification problem. These few attempts aim to effectively exploit the temporal dimension in videos for better learning in low data regimes. However, they have largely ignored a key characteristic of video which could be vital for few-shot recognition, that is, videos are often accompanied by rich text descriptions. In this paper, for the first time, we propose to leverage these human-provided textual descriptions as privileged information when training a few-shot video classification model. Specifically, we formulate a text-based task conditioner to adapt video features to the few-shot learning task. Our model follows a transductive setting where query samples and support textual descriptions can be used to update the support set class prototype to further improve the task-adaptation ability of the model. Our model obtains state-of-the-art performance on four challenging benchmarks in few-shot video action classification.

* 10 pages including references, 7 figures, and 4 tables 
  

Incorporating Visual Layout Structures for Scientific Text Classification

Jun 01, 2021
Zejiang Shen, Kyle Lo, Lucy Lu Wang, Bailey Kuehl, Daniel S. Weld, Doug Downey

Classifying the core textual components of a scientific paper-title, author, body text, etc.-is a critical first step in automated scientific document understanding. Previous work has shown how using elementary layout information, i.e., each token's 2D position on the page, leads to more accurate classification. We introduce new methods for incorporating VIsual LAyout structures (VILA), e.g., the grouping of page texts into text lines or text blocks, into language models to further improve performance. We show that the I-VILA approach, which simply adds special tokens denoting boundaries between layout structures into model inputs, can lead to +1~4.5 F1 Score improvements in token classification tasks. Moreover, we design a hierarchical model H-VILA that encodes these layout structures and record a up-to 70% efficiency boost without hurting prediction accuracy. The experiments are conducted on a newly curated evaluation suite, S2-VLUE, with a novel metric measuring VILA awareness and a new dataset covering 19 scientific disciplines with gold annotations. Pre-trained weights, benchmark datasets, and source code will be available at https://github.com/allenai/VILA}{https://github.com/allenai/VILA.

* 13 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables 
  

Multimodal Depression Classification Using Articulatory Coordination Features And Hierarchical Attention Based Text Embeddings

Feb 13, 2022
Nadee Seneviratne, Carol Espy-Wilson

Multimodal depression classification has gained immense popularity over the recent years. We develop a multimodal depression classification system using articulatory coordination features extracted from vocal tract variables and text transcriptions obtained from an automatic speech recognition tool that yields improvements of area under the receiver operating characteristics curve compared to uni-modal classifiers (7.5% and 13.7% for audio and text respectively). We show that in the case of limited training data, a segment-level classifier can first be trained to then obtain a session-wise prediction without hindering the performance, using a multi-stage convolutional recurrent neural network. A text model is trained using a Hierarchical Attention Network (HAN). The multimodal system is developed by combining embeddings from the session-level audio model and the HAN text model

* Accepted to ICASSP 2022. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2104.04195 
  

Finding Good Representations of Emotions for Text Classification

Aug 22, 2018
Ji Ho Park

It is important for machines to interpret human emotions properly for better human-machine communications, as emotion is an essential part of human-to-human communications. One aspect of emotion is reflected in the language we use. How to represent emotions in texts is a challenge in natural language processing (NLP). Although continuous vector representations like word2vec have become the new norm for NLP problems, their limitations are that they do not take emotions into consideration and can unintentionally contain bias toward certain identities like different genders. This thesis focuses on improving existing representations in both word and sentence levels by explicitly taking emotions inside text and model bias into account in their training process. Our improved representations can help to build more robust machine learning models for affect-related text classification like sentiment/emotion analysis and abusive language detection. We first propose representations called emotional word vectors (EVEC), which is learned from a convolutional neural network model with an emotion-labeled corpus, which is constructed using hashtags. Secondly, we extend to learning sentence-level representations with a huge corpus of texts with the pseudo task of recognizing emojis. Our results show that, with the representations trained from millions of tweets with weakly supervised labels such as hashtags and emojis, we can solve sentiment/emotion analysis tasks more effectively. Lastly, as examples of model bias in representations of existing approaches, we explore a specific problem of automatic detection of abusive language. We address the issue of gender bias in various neural network models by conducting experiments to measure and reduce those biases in the representations in order to build more robust classification models.

* HKUST MPhil Thesis, 2018 
* HKUST MPhil Thesis, 87 pages 
  
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