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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Rotation-Sensitive Regression for Oriented Scene Text Detection

Mar 14, 2018
Minghui Liao, Zhen Zhu, Baoguang Shi, Gui-song Xia, Xiang Bai

Text in natural images is of arbitrary orientations, requiring detection in terms of oriented bounding boxes. Normally, a multi-oriented text detector often involves two key tasks: 1) text presence detection, which is a classification problem disregarding text orientation; 2) oriented bounding box regression, which concerns about text orientation. Previous methods rely on shared features for both tasks, resulting in degraded performance due to the incompatibility of the two tasks. To address this issue, we propose to perform classification and regression on features of different characteristics, extracted by two network branches of different designs. Concretely, the regression branch extracts rotation-sensitive features by actively rotating the convolutional filters, while the classification branch extracts rotation-invariant features by pooling the rotation-sensitive features. The proposed method named Rotation-sensitive Regression Detector (RRD) achieves state-of-the-art performance on three oriented scene text benchmark datasets, including ICDAR 2015, MSRA-TD500, RCTW-17 and COCO-Text. Furthermore, RRD achieves a significant improvement on a ship collection dataset, demonstrating its generality on oriented object detection.

* accepted by CVPR 2018 

Improve Document Embedding for Text Categorization Through Deep Siamese Neural Network

May 31, 2020
Erfaneh Gharavi, Hadi Veisi

Due to the increasing amount of data on the internet, finding a highly-informative, low-dimensional representation for text is one of the main challenges for efficient natural language processing tasks including text classification. This representation should capture the semantic information of the text while retaining their relevance level for document classification. This approach maps the documents with similar topics to a similar space in vector space representation. To obtain representation for large text, we propose the utilization of deep Siamese neural networks. To embed document relevance in topics in the distributed representation, we use a Siamese neural network to jointly learn document representations. Our Siamese network consists of two sub-network of multi-layer perceptron. We examine our representation for the text categorization task on BBC news dataset. The results show that the proposed representations outperform the conventional and state-of-the-art representations in the text classification task on this dataset.


Few-Shot Text Classification with Induction Network

Feb 27, 2019
Ruiying Geng, Binhua Li, Yongbin Li, Yuxiao Ye, Ping Jian, Jian Sun

Text classification tends to struggle when data is deficient or when it needs to adapt to unseen classes. In such challenging scenarios, recent studies often use meta learning to simulate the few-shot task, in which new queries are compared to a small support set on a sample-wise level. However, this sample-wise comparison may be severely disturbed by the various expressions in the same class. Therefore, we should be able to learn a general representation of each class in the support set and then compare it to new queries. In this paper, we propose a novel Induction Network to learn such generalized class-wise representations, innovatively combining the dynamic routing algorithm with the typical meta learning framework. In this way, our model is able to induce from particularity to university, which is a more human-like learning approach. We evaluate our model on a well-studied sentiment classification dataset (English) and a real-world dialogue intent classification dataset (Chinese). Experiment results show that, on both datasets, our model significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art models and improves the average accuracy by more than 3%, which proves the effectiveness of class-wise generalization in few-shot text classification.

* 7 pages, 3 figures 

Building for Tomorrow: Assessing the Temporal Persistence of Text Classifiers

May 11, 2022
Rabab Alkhalifa, Elena Kochkina, Arkaitz Zubiaga

Performance of text classification models can drop over time when new data to be classified is more distant in time from the data used for training, due to naturally occurring changes in the data, such as vocabulary change. A solution to this is to continually label new data to retrain the model, which is, however, often unaffordable to be performed regularly due to its associated cost. This raises important research questions on the design of text classification models that are intended to persist over time: do all embedding models and classification algorithms exhibit similar performance drops over time and is the performance drop more prominent in some tasks or datasets than others? With the aim of answering these research questions, we perform longitudinal classification experiments on three datasets spanning between 6 and 19 years. Findings from these experiments inform the design of text classification models with the aim of preserving performance over time, discussing the extent to which one can rely on classification models trained from temporally distant training data, as well as how the characteristics of the dataset impact this.


Arabic Language Text Classification Using Dependency Syntax-Based Feature Selection

Oct 17, 2014
Yannis Haralambous, Yassir Elidrissi, Philippe Lenca

We study the performance of Arabic text classification combining various techniques: (a) tfidf vs. dependency syntax, for feature selection and weighting; (b) class association rules vs. support vector machines, for classification. The Arabic text is used in two forms: rootified and lightly stemmed. The results we obtain show that lightly stemmed text leads to better performance than rootified text; that class association rules are better suited for small feature sets obtained by dependency syntax constraints; and, finally, that support vector machines are better suited for large feature sets based on morphological feature selection criteria.

* 10 pages, 4 figure, accepted at CITALA 2014 (

Deep Learning for Technical Document Classification

Jun 27, 2021
Shuo Jiang, Jianxi Luo, Jie Hu, Christopher L. Magee

In large technology companies, the requirements for managing and organizing technical documents created by engineers and managers in supporting relevant decision making have increased dramatically in recent years, which has led to a higher demand for more scalable, accurate, and automated document classification. Prior studies have primarily focused on processing text for classification and small-scale databases. This paper describes a novel multimodal deep learning architecture, called TechDoc, for technical document classification, which utilizes both natural language and descriptive images to train hierarchical classifiers. The architecture synthesizes convolutional neural networks and recurrent neural networks through an integrated training process. We applied the architecture to a large multimodal technical document database and trained the model for classifying documents based on the hierarchical International Patent Classification system. Our results show that the trained neural network presents a greater classification accuracy than those using a single modality and several earlier text classification methods. The trained model can potentially be scaled to millions of real-world technical documents with both text and figures, which is useful for data and knowledge management in large technology companies and organizations.

* 34 pages, 7 figures, 10 tables 

DIALOG-22 RuATD Generated Text Detection

Jun 16, 2022
Narek Maloyan, Bulat Nutfullin, Eugene Ilyushin

Text Generation Models (TGMs) succeed in creating text that matches human language style reasonably well. Detectors that can distinguish between TGM-generated text and human-written ones play an important role in preventing abuse of TGM. In this paper, we describe our pipeline for the two DIALOG-22 RuATD tasks: detecting generated text (binary task) and classification of which model was used to generate text (multiclass task). We achieved 1st place on the binary classification task with an accuracy score of 0.82995 on the private test set and 4th place on the multiclass classification task with an accuracy score of 0.62856 on the private test set. We proposed an ensemble method of different pre-trained models based on the attention mechanism.

* 6 pages 

Word-Class Embeddings for Multiclass Text Classification

Nov 26, 2019
Alejandro Moreo, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio Sebastiani

Pre-trained word embeddings encode general word semantics and lexical regularities of natural language, and have proven useful across many NLP tasks, including word sense disambiguation, machine translation, and sentiment analysis, to name a few. In supervised tasks such as multiclass text classification (the focus of this article) it seems appealing to enhance word representations with ad-hoc embeddings that encode task-specific information. We propose (supervised) word-class embeddings (WCEs), and show that, when concatenated to (unsupervised) pre-trained word embeddings, they substantially facilitate the training of deep-learning models in multiclass classification by topic. We show empirical evidence that WCEs yield a consistent improvement in multiclass classification accuracy, using four popular neural architectures and six widely used and publicly available datasets for multiclass text classification. Our code that implements WCEs is publicly available at


DocSCAN: Unsupervised Text Classification via Learning from Neighbors

May 11, 2021
Dominik Stammbach, Elliott Ash

We introduce DocSCAN, a completely unsupervised text classification approach using Semantic Clustering by Adopting Nearest-Neighbors (SCAN). For each document, we obtain semantically informative vectors from a large pre-trained language model. Similar documents have proximate vectors, so neighbors in the representation space tend to share topic labels. Our learnable clustering approach uses pairs of neighboring datapoints as a weak learning signal. The proposed approach learns to assign classes to the whole dataset without provided ground-truth labels. On five topic classification benchmarks, we improve on various unsupervised baselines by a large margin. In datasets with relatively few and balanced outcome classes, DocSCAN approaches the performance of supervised classification. The method fails for other types of classification, such as sentiment analysis, pointing to important conceptual and practical differences between classifying images and texts.


Topological Data Analysis in Text Classification: Extracting Features with Additive Information

Mar 29, 2020
Shafie Gholizadeh, Ketki Savle, Armin Seyeditabari, Wlodek Zadrozny

While the strength of Topological Data Analysis has been explored in many studies on high dimensional numeric data, it is still a challenging task to apply it to text. As the primary goal in topological data analysis is to define and quantify the shapes in numeric data, defining shapes in the text is much more challenging, even though the geometries of vector spaces and conceptual spaces are clearly relevant for information retrieval and semantics. In this paper, we examine two different methods of extraction of topological features from text, using as the underlying representations of words the two most popular methods, namely word embeddings and TF-IDF vectors. To extract topological features from the word embedding space, we interpret the embedding of a text document as high dimensional time series, and we analyze the topology of the underlying graph where the vertices correspond to different embedding dimensions. For topological data analysis with the TF-IDF representations, we analyze the topology of the graph whose vertices come from the TF-IDF vectors of different blocks in the textual document. In both cases, we apply homological persistence to reveal the geometric structures under different distance resolutions. Our results show that these topological features carry some exclusive information that is not captured by conventional text mining methods. In our experiments we observe adding topological features to the conventional features in ensemble models improves the classification results (up to 5\%). On the other hand, as expected, topological features by themselves may be not sufficient for effective classification. It is an open problem to see whether TDA features from word embeddings might be sufficient, as they seem to perform within a range of few points from top results obtained with a linear support vector classifier.