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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

DOC: Deep Open Classification of Text Documents

Sep 25, 2017
Lei Shu, Hu Xu, Bing Liu

Traditional supervised learning makes the closed-world assumption that the classes appeared in the test data must have appeared in training. This also applies to text learning or text classification. As learning is used increasingly in dynamic open environments where some new/test documents may not belong to any of the training classes, identifying these novel documents during classification presents an important problem. This problem is called open-world classification or open classification. This paper proposes a novel deep learning based approach. It outperforms existing state-of-the-art techniques dramatically.

* accepted at EMNLP 2017 

Knowledgeable Prompt-tuning: Incorporating Knowledge into Prompt Verbalizer for Text Classification

Aug 04, 2021
Shengding Hu, Ning Ding, Huadong Wang, Zhiyuan Liu, Juanzi Li, Maosong Sun

Tuning pre-trained language models (PLMs) with task-specific prompts has been a promising approach for text classification. Particularly, previous studies suggest that prompt-tuning has remarkable superiority in the low-data scenario over the generic fine-tuning methods with extra classifiers. The core idea of prompt-tuning is to insert text pieces, i.e., template, to the input and transform a classification problem into a masked language modeling problem, where a crucial step is to construct a projection, i.e., verbalizer, between a label space and a label word space. A verbalizer is usually handcrafted or searched by gradient descent, which may lack coverage and bring considerable bias and high variances to the results. In this work, we focus on incorporating external knowledge into the verbalizer, forming a knowledgeable prompt-tuning (KPT), to improve and stabilize prompt-tuning. Specifically, we expand the label word space of the verbalizer using external knowledge bases (KBs) and refine the expanded label word space with the PLM itself before predicting with the expanded label word space. Extensive experiments on zero and few-shot text classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of knowledgeable prompt-tuning.


F10-SGD: Fast Training of Elastic-net Linear Models for Text Classification and Named-entity Recognition

Feb 27, 2019
Stanislav Peshterliev, Alexander Hsieh, Imre Kiss

Voice-assistants text classification and named-entity recognition (NER) models are trained on millions of example utterances. Because of the large datasets, long training time is one of the bottlenecks for releasing improved models. In this work, we develop F10-SGD, a fast optimizer for text classification and NER elastic-net linear models. On internal datasets, F10-SGD provides 4x reduction in training time compared to the OWL-QN optimizer without loss of accuracy or increase in model size. Furthermore, we incorporate biased sampling that prioritizes harder examples towards the end of the training. As a result, in addition to faster training, we were able to obtain statistically significant accuracy improvements for NER. On public datasets, F10-SGD obtains 22% faster training time compared to FastText for text classification. And, 4x reduction in training time compared to CRFSuite OWL-QN for NER.


Exploiting Global and Local Hierarchies for Hierarchical Text Classification

May 05, 2022
Ting Jiang, Deqing Wang, Leilei Sun, Zhongzhi Chen, Fuzhen Zhuang, Qinghong Yang

Hierarchical text classification aims to leverage label hierarchy in multi-label text classification. Existing methods encode label hierarchy in a global view, where label hierarchy is treated as the static hierarchical structure containing all labels. Since global hierarchy is static and irrelevant to text samples, it makes these methods hard to exploit hierarchical information. Contrary to global hierarchy, local hierarchy as the structured target labels hierarchy corresponding to each text sample is dynamic and relevant to text samples, which is ignored in previous methods. To exploit global and local hierarchies, we propose Hierarchy-guided BERT with Global and Local hierarchies (HBGL), which utilizes the large-scale parameters and prior language knowledge of BERT to model both global and local hierarchies. Moreover, HBGL avoids the intentional fusion of semantic and hierarchical modules by directly modeling semantic and hierarchical information with BERT. Compared with the state-of-the-art method HGCLR, our method achieves significant improvement on three benchmark datasets.


Super Characters: A Conversion from Sentiment Classification to Image Classification

Oct 15, 2018
Baohua Sun, Lin Yang, Patrick Dong, Wenhan Zhang, Jason Dong, Charles Young

We propose a method named Super Characters for sentiment classification. This method converts the sentiment classification problem into image classification problem by projecting texts into images and then applying CNN models for classification. Text features are extracted automatically from the generated Super Characters images, hence there is no need of any explicit step of embedding the words or characters into numerical vector representations. Experimental results on large social media corpus show that the Super Characters method consistently outperforms other methods for sentiment classification and topic classification tasks on ten large social media datasets of millions of contents in four different languages, including Chinese, Japanese, Korean and English.

* 7 pages, 1 figure, 5 tables. Accepted by EMNLP2018 workshop WASSA2018 

MATCH: Metadata-Aware Text Classification in A Large Hierarchy

Feb 15, 2021
Yu Zhang, Zhihong Shen, Yuxiao Dong, Kuansan Wang, Jiawei Han

Multi-label text classification refers to the problem of assigning each given document its most relevant labels from the label set. Commonly, the metadata of the given documents and the hierarchy of the labels are available in real-world applications. However, most existing studies focus on only modeling the text information, with a few attempts to utilize either metadata or hierarchy signals, but not both of them. In this paper, we bridge the gap by formalizing the problem of metadata-aware text classification in a large label hierarchy (e.g., with tens of thousands of labels). To address this problem, we present the MATCH solution -- an end-to-end framework that leverages both metadata and hierarchy information. To incorporate metadata, we pre-train the embeddings of text and metadata in the same space and also leverage the fully-connected attentions to capture the interrelations between them. To leverage the label hierarchy, we propose different ways to regularize the parameters and output probability of each child label by its parents. Extensive experiments on two massive text datasets with large-scale label hierarchies demonstrate the effectiveness of MATCH over state-of-the-art deep learning baselines.

* 12 pages; Accepted to WWW 2021 

An Effective Label Noise Model for DNN Text Classification

Mar 18, 2019
Ishan Jindal, Daniel Pressel, Brian Lester, Matthew Nokleby

Because large, human-annotated datasets suffer from labeling errors, it is crucial to be able to train deep neural networks in the presence of label noise. While training image classification models with label noise have received much attention, training text classification models have not. In this paper, we propose an approach to training deep networks that is robust to label noise. This approach introduces a non-linear processing layer (noise model) that models the statistics of the label noise into a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture. The noise model and the CNN weights are learned jointly from noisy training data, which prevents the model from overfitting to erroneous labels. Through extensive experiments on several text classification datasets, we show that this approach enables the CNN to learn better sentence representations and is robust even to extreme label noise. We find that proper initialization and regularization of this noise model is critical. Further, by contrast to results focusing on large batch sizes for mitigating label noise for image classification, we find that altering the batch size does not have much effect on classification performance.

* Accepted at NAACL-HLT 2019 Main Conference Long paper 

SEPP: Similarity Estimation of Predicted Probabilities for Defending and Detecting Adversarial Text

Oct 13, 2021
Hoang-Quoc Nguyen-Son, Seira Hidano, Kazuhide Fukushima, Shinsaku Kiyomoto

There are two cases describing how a classifier processes input text, namely, misclassification and correct classification. In terms of misclassified texts, a classifier handles the texts with both incorrect predictions and adversarial texts, which are generated to fool the classifier, which is called a victim. Both types are misunderstood by the victim, but they can still be recognized by other classifiers. This induces large gaps in predicted probabilities between the victim and the other classifiers. In contrast, text correctly classified by the victim is often successfully predicted by the others and induces small gaps. In this paper, we propose an ensemble model based on similarity estimation of predicted probabilities (SEPP) to exploit the large gaps in the misclassified predictions in contrast to small gaps in the correct classification. SEPP then corrects the incorrect predictions of the misclassified texts. We demonstrate the resilience of SEPP in defending and detecting adversarial texts through different types of victim classifiers, classification tasks, and adversarial attacks.

* PACLIC 35 (2021) (Oral) 

Automatic Classification of Bug Reports Based on Multiple Text Information and Reports' Intention

Aug 02, 2022
Fanqi Meng, Xuesong Wang, Jingdong Wang, Peifang Wang

With the rapid growth of software scale and complexity, a large number of bug reports are submitted to the bug tracking system. In order to speed up defect repair, these reports need to be accurately classified so that they can be sent to the appropriate developers. However, the existing classification methods only use the text information of the bug report, which leads to their low performance. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a new automatic classification method for bug reports. The innovation is that when categorizing bug reports, in addition to using the text information of the report, the intention of the report (i.e. suggestion or explanation) is also considered, thereby improving the performance of the classification. First, we collect bug reports from four ecosystems (Apache, Eclipse, Gentoo, Mozilla) and manually annotate them to construct an experimental data set. Then, we use Natural Language Processing technology to preprocess the data. On this basis, BERT and TF-IDF are used to extract the features of the intention and the multiple text information. Finally, the features are used to train the classifiers. The experimental result on five classifiers (including K-Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest) show that our proposed method achieves better performance and its F-Measure achieves from 87.3% to 95.5%.


HTCInfoMax: A Global Model for Hierarchical Text Classification via Information Maximization

Apr 12, 2021
Zhongfen Deng, Hao Peng, Dongxiao He, Jianxin Li, Philip S. Yu

The current state-of-the-art model HiAGM for hierarchical text classification has two limitations. First, it correlates each text sample with all labels in the dataset which contains irrelevant information. Second, it does not consider any statistical constraint on the label representations learned by the structure encoder, while constraints for representation learning are proved to be helpful in previous work. In this paper, we propose HTCInfoMax to address these issues by introducing information maximization which includes two modules: text-label mutual information maximization and label prior matching. The first module can model the interaction between each text sample and its ground truth labels explicitly which filters out irrelevant information. The second one encourages the structure encoder to learn better representations with desired characteristics for all labels which can better handle label imbalance in hierarchical text classification. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed HTCInfoMax.

* Accepted by NAACL-HLT 2021