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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Priberam Labs at the NTCIR-15 SHINRA2020-ML: Classification Task

May 12, 2021
Ruben Cardoso, Afonso Mendes, Andre Lamurias

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia available in 285 languages. It composes an extremely relevant Knowledge Base (KB), which could be leveraged by automatic systems for several purposes. However, the structure and organisation of such information are not prone to automatic parsing and understanding and it is, therefore, necessary to structure this knowledge. The goal of the current SHINRA2020-ML task is to leverage Wikipedia pages in order to categorise their corresponding entities across 268 hierarchical categories, belonging to the Extended Named Entity (ENE) ontology. In this work, we propose three distinct models based on the contextualised embeddings yielded by Multilingual BERT. We explore the performances of a linear layer with and without explicit usage of the ontology's hierarchy, and a Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) layer. We also test several pooling strategies to leverage BERT's embeddings and selection criteria based on the labels' scores. We were able to achieve good performance across a large variety of languages, including those not seen during the fine-tuning process (zero-shot languages).

* Presented at NTCIR-15 conference (2020) 

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AdCOFE: Advanced Contextual Feature Extraction in Conversations for emotion classification

Apr 09, 2021
Vaibhav Bhat, Anita Yadav, Sonal Yadav, Dhivya Chandrasekran, Vijay Mago

Emotion recognition in conversations is an important step in various virtual chat bots which require opinion-based feedback, like in social media threads, online support and many more applications. Current Emotion recognition in conversations models face issues like (a) loss of contextual information in between two dialogues of a conversation, (b) failure to give appropriate importance to significant tokens in each utterance and (c) inability to pass on the emotional information from previous utterances.The proposed model of Advanced Contextual Feature Extraction (AdCOFE) addresses these issues by performing unique feature extraction using knowledge graphs, sentiment lexicons and phrases of natural language at all levels (word and position embedding) of the utterances. Experiments on the Emotion recognition in conversations dataset show that AdCOFE is beneficial in capturing emotions in conversations.

* 12 pages, to be published in PeerJ Computer Science Journal 

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Classification of Important Segments in Educational Videos using Multimodal Features

Oct 26, 2020
Junaid Ahmed Ghauri, Sherzod Hakimov, Ralph Ewerth

Videos are a commonly-used type of content in learning during Web search. Many e-learning platforms provide quality content, but sometimes educational videos are long and cover many topics. Humans are good in extracting important sections from videos, but it remains a significant challenge for computers. In this paper, we address the problem of assigning importance scores to video segments, that is how much information they contain with respect to the overall topic of an educational video. We present an annotation tool and a new dataset of annotated educational videos collected from popular online learning platforms. Moreover, we propose a multimodal neural architecture that utilizes state-of-the-art audio, visual and textual features. Our experiments investigate the impact of visual and temporal information, as well as the combination of multimodal features on importance prediction.

* Proceedings of the CIKM 2020 Workshops, October 19 to 20, Galway, Ireland 

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Considering Likelihood in NLP Classification Explanations with Occlusion and Language Modeling

Apr 21, 2020
David Harbecke, Christoph Alt

Recently, state-of-the-art NLP models gained an increasing syntactic and semantic understanding of language, and explanation methods are crucial to understand their decisions. Occlusion is a well established method that provides explanations on discrete language data, e.g. by removing a language unit from an input and measuring the impact on a model's decision. We argue that current occlusion-based methods often produce invalid or syntactically incorrect language data, neglecting the improved abilities of recent NLP models. Furthermore, gradient-based explanation methods disregard the discrete distribution of data in NLP. Thus, we propose OLM: a novel explanation method that combines occlusion and language models to sample valid and syntactically correct replacements with high likelihood, given the context of the original input. We lay out a theoretical foundation that alleviates these weaknesses of other explanation methods in NLP and provide results that underline the importance of considering data likelihood in occlusion-based explanation.

* ACL 2020 Student Research Workshop 

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Fine grained classification for multi-source land cover mapping

Apr 04, 2020
Yawogan Jean Eudes Gbodjo, Dino Ienco, Louise Leroux, Roberto Interdonato, Raffaelle Gaetano

Nowadays, there is a general agreement on the need to better characterize agricultural monitoring systems in response to the global changes. Timely and accurate land use/land cover mapping can support this vision by providing useful information at fine scale. Here, a deep learning approach is proposed to deal with multi-source land cover mapping at object level. The approach is based on an extension of Recurrent Neural Network enriched via an attention mechanism dedicated to multi-temporal data context. Moreover, a new hierarchical pretraining strategy designed to exploit specific domain knowledge available under hierarchical relationships within land cover classes is introduced. Experiments carried out on the Reunion island - a french overseas department - demonstrate the significance of the proposal compared to remote sensing standard approaches for land cover mapping.

* Paper presented at the ICLR 2020 Workshop on Computer Vision for Agriculture (CV4A) 

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Antonym-Synonym Classification Based on New Sub-space Embeddings

Jun 13, 2019
Muhammad Asif Ali, Yifang Sun, Xiaoling Zhou, Wei Wang, Xiang Zhao

Distinguishing antonyms from synonyms is a key challenge for many NLP applications focused on the lexical-semantic relation extraction. Existing solutions relying on large-scale corpora yield low performance because of huge contextual overlap of antonym and synonym pairs. We propose a novel approach entirely based on pre-trained embeddings. We hypothesize that the pre-trained embeddings comprehend a blend of lexical-semantic information and we may distill the task-specific information using Distiller, a model proposed in this paper. Later, a classifier is trained based on features constructed from the distilled sub-spaces along with some word level features to distinguish antonyms from synonyms. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms existing research on antonym synonym distinction in both speed and performance.

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Classification of EEG Signals using Genetic Programming for Feature Construction

Jun 11, 2019
Icaro Marcelino Miranda, Claus Aranha, Marcelo Ladeira

The analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) waves is of critical importance for the diagnosis of sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea and insomnia, besides that, seizures, epilepsy, head injuries, dizziness, headaches and brain tumors. In this context, one important task is the identification of visible structures in the EEG signal, such as sleep spindles and K-complexes. The identification of these structures is usually performed by visual inspection from human experts, a process that can be error prone and susceptible to biases. Therefore there is interest in developing technologies for the automated analysis of EEG. In this paper, we propose a new Genetic Programming (GP) framework for feature construction and dimensionality reduction from EEG signals. We use these features to automatically identify spindles and K-complexes on data from the DREAMS project. Using 5 different classifiers, the set of attributes produced by GP obtained better AUC scores than those obtained from PCA or the full set of attributes. Also, the results obtained from the proposed framework obtained a better balance of Specificity and Recall than other models recently proposed in the literature. Analysis of the features most used by GP also suggested improvements for data acquisition protocols in future EEG examinations.

* 9 pages, accepted to the GECCO 2019 conference 

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Effectiveness of Equalized Odds for Fair Classification under Imperfect Group Information

Jun 07, 2019
Pranjal Awasthi, Matthäus Kleindessner, Jamie Morgenstern

Most approaches for ensuring or improving a model's fairness with respect to a protected attribute (such as race or gender) assume access to the true value of the protected attribute for every data point. In many scenarios, however, perfect knowledge of the protected attribute is unrealistic. In this paper, we ask to what extent fairness interventions can be effective even with imperfect information about the protected attribute. In particular, we study this question in the context of the prominent equalized odds method of Hardt et al. (2016). We claim that as long as the perturbation of the protected attribute is somewhat moderate, one should still run equalized odds if one would run it knowing the true protected attribute: the bias of the classifier that we obtain using the perturbed attribute is smaller than the bias of the original classifier, and its error is not larger than the error of the equalized odds classifier obtained when working with the true protected attribute.

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Sinkhorn Divergence of Topological Signature Estimates for Time Series Classification

Feb 14, 2019
Colin Stephen

Distinguishing between classes of time series sampled from dynamic systems is a common challenge in systems and control engineering, for example in the context of health monitoring, fault detection, and quality control. The challenge is increased when no underlying model of a system is known, measurement noise is present, and long signals need to be interpreted. In this paper we address these issues with a new non parametric classifier based on topological signatures. Our model learns classes as weighted kernel density estimates (KDEs) over persistent homology diagrams and predicts new trajectory labels using Sinkhorn divergences on the space of diagram KDEs to quantify proximity. We show that this approach accurately discriminates between states of chaotic systems that are close in parameter space, and its performance is robust to noise.

* 9 pages, 4 figures, 2018 17th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications 

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Efficient Primal-Dual Algorithms for Large-Scale Multiclass Classification

Feb 11, 2019
Dmitry Babichev, Dmitrii Ostrovskii, Francis Bach

We develop efficient algorithms to train $\ell_1$-regularized linear classifiers with large dimensionality $d$ of the feature space, number of classes $k$, and sample size $n$. Our focus is on a special class of losses that includes, in particular, the multiclass hinge and logistic losses. Our approach combines several ideas: (i) passing to the equivalent saddle-point problem with a quasi-bilinear objective; (ii) applying stochastic mirror descent with a proper choice of geometry which guarantees a favorable accuracy bound; (iii) devising non-uniform sampling schemes to approximate the matrix products. In particular, for the multiclass hinge loss we propose a \textit{sublinear} algorithm with iterations performed in $O(d+n+k)$ arithmetic operations.

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