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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Joint Energy-based Detection and Classificationon of Multilingual Text Lines

Jul 23, 2014
Igor Milevskiy, Yuri Boykov

This paper proposes a new hierarchical MDL-based model for a joint detection and classification of multilingual text lines in im- ages taken by hand-held cameras. The majority of related text detec- tion methods assume alphabet-based writing in a single language, e.g. in Latin. They use simple clustering heuristics specific to such texts: prox- imity between letters within one line, larger distance between separate lines, etc. We are interested in a significantly more ambiguous problem where images combine alphabet and logographic characters from multiple languages and typographic rules vary a lot (e.g. English, Korean, and Chinese). Complexity of detecting and classifying text lines in multiple languages calls for a more principled approach based on information- theoretic principles. Our new MDL model includes data costs combining geometric errors with classification likelihoods and a hierarchical sparsity term based on label costs. This energy model can be efficiently minimized by fusion moves. We demonstrate robustness of the proposed algorithm on a large new database of multilingual text images collected in the pub- lic transit system of Seoul.

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ICDAR2019 Robust Reading Challenge on Multi-lingual Scene Text Detection and Recognition -- RRC-MLT-2019

Jul 01, 2019
Nibal Nayef, Yash Patel, Michal Busta, Pinaki Nath Chowdhury, Dimosthenis Karatzas, Wafa Khlif, Jiri Matas, Umapada Pal, Jean-Christophe Burie, Cheng-lin Liu, Jean-Marc Ogier

With the growing cosmopolitan culture of modern cities, the need of robust Multi-Lingual scene Text (MLT) detection and recognition systems has never been more immense. With the goal to systematically benchmark and push the state-of-the-art forward, the proposed competition builds on top of the RRC-MLT-2017 with an additional end-to-end task, an additional language in the real images dataset, a large scale multi-lingual synthetic dataset to assist the training, and a baseline End-to-End recognition method. The real dataset consists of 20,000 images containing text from 10 languages. The challenge has 4 tasks covering various aspects of multi-lingual scene text: (a) text detection, (b) cropped word script classification, (c) joint text detection and script classification and (d) end-to-end detection and recognition. In total, the competition received 60 submissions from the research and industrial communities. This paper presents the dataset, the tasks and the findings of the presented RRC-MLT-2019 challenge.

* ICDAR'19 camera-ready version. Competition available at The first two authors contributed equally 
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Automated Coding of Under-Studied Medical Concept Domains: Linking Physical Activity Reports to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

Nov 27, 2020
Denis Newman-Griffis, Eric Fosler-Lussier

Linking clinical narratives to standardized vocabularies and coding systems is a key component of unlocking the information in medical text for analysis. However, many domains of medical concepts lack well-developed terminologies that can support effective coding of medical text. We present a framework for developing natural language processing (NLP) technologies for automated coding of under-studied types of medical information, and demonstrate its applicability via a case study on physical mobility function. Mobility is a component of many health measures, from post-acute care and surgical outcomes to chronic frailty and disability, and is coded in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). However, mobility and other types of functional activity remain under-studied in medical informatics, and neither the ICF nor commonly-used medical terminologies capture functional status terminology in practice. We investigated two data-driven paradigms, classification and candidate selection, to link narrative observations of mobility to standardized ICF codes, using a dataset of clinical narratives from physical therapy encounters. Recent advances in language modeling and word embedding were used as features for established machine learning models and a novel deep learning approach, achieving a macro F-1 score of 84% on linking mobility activity reports to ICF codes. Both classification and candidate selection approaches present distinct strengths for automated coding in under-studied domains, and we highlight that the combination of (i) a small annotated data set; (ii) expert definitions of codes of interest; and (iii) a representative text corpus is sufficient to produce high-performing automated coding systems. This study has implications for the ongoing growth of NLP tools for a variety of specialized applications in clinical care and research.

* 30 pages (21 text + 9 references); 9 figures, 2 tables 
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Computational analyses of the topics, sentiments, literariness, creativity and beauty of texts in a large Corpus of English Literature

Jan 12, 2022
Arthur M. Jacobs, Annette Kinder

The Gutenberg Literary English Corpus (GLEC, Jacobs, 2018a) provides a rich source of textual data for research in digital humanities, computational linguistics or neurocognitive poetics. In this study we address differences among the different literature categories in GLEC, as well as differences between authors. We report the results of three studies providing i) topic and sentiment analyses for six text categories of GLEC (i.e., children and youth, essays, novels, plays, poems, stories) and its >100 authors, ii) novel measures of semantic complexity as indices of the literariness, creativity and book beauty of the works in GLEC (e.g., Jane Austen's six novels), and iii) two experiments on text classification and authorship recognition using novel features of semantic complexity. The data on two novel measures estimating a text's literariness, intratextual variance and stepwise distance (van Cranenburgh et al., 2019) revealed that plays are the most literary texts in GLEC, followed by poems and novels. Computation of a novel index of text creativity (Gray et al., 2016) revealed poems and plays as the most creative categories with the most creative authors all being poets (Milton, Pope, Keats, Byron, or Wordsworth). We also computed a novel index of perceived beauty of verbal art (Kintsch, 2012) for the works in GLEC and predict that Emma is the theoretically most beautiful of Austen's novels. Finally, we demonstrate that these novel measures of semantic complexity are important features for text classification and authorship recognition with overall predictive accuracies in the range of .75 to .97. Our data pave the way for future computational and empirical studies of literature or experiments in reading psychology and offer multiple baselines and benchmarks for analysing and validating other book corpora.

* 37 pages, 12 figures 
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Black-box Generation of Adversarial Text Sequences to Evade Deep Learning Classifiers

May 23, 2018
Ji Gao, Jack Lanchantin, Mary Lou Soffa, Yanjun Qi

Although various techniques have been proposed to generate adversarial samples for white-box attacks on text, little attention has been paid to black-box attacks, which are more realistic scenarios. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, DeepWordBug, to effectively generate small text perturbations in a black-box setting that forces a deep-learning classifier to misclassify a text input. We employ novel scoring strategies to identify the critical tokens that, if modified, cause the classifier to make an incorrect prediction. Simple character-level transformations are applied to the highest-ranked tokens in order to minimize the edit distance of the perturbation, yet change the original classification. We evaluated DeepWordBug on eight real-world text datasets, including text classification, sentiment analysis, and spam detection. We compare the result of DeepWordBug with two baselines: Random (Black-box) and Gradient (White-box). Our experimental results indicate that DeepWordBug reduces the prediction accuracy of current state-of-the-art deep-learning models, including a decrease of 68\% on average for a Word-LSTM model and 48\% on average for a Char-CNN model.

* This is an extended version of the 6page Workshop version appearing in 1st Deep Learning and Security Workshop colocated with IEEE S&P 
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Learning Convolutional Text Representations for Visual Question Answering

Apr 18, 2018
Zhengyang Wang, Shuiwang Ji

Visual question answering is a recently proposed artificial intelligence task that requires a deep understanding of both images and texts. In deep learning, images are typically modeled through convolutional neural networks, and texts are typically modeled through recurrent neural networks. While the requirement for modeling images is similar to traditional computer vision tasks, such as object recognition and image classification, visual question answering raises a different need for textual representation as compared to other natural language processing tasks. In this work, we perform a detailed analysis on natural language questions in visual question answering. Based on the analysis, we propose to rely on convolutional neural networks for learning textual representations. By exploring the various properties of convolutional neural networks specialized for text data, such as width and depth, we present our "CNN Inception + Gate" model. We show that our model improves question representations and thus the overall accuracy of visual question answering models. We also show that the text representation requirement in visual question answering is more complicated and comprehensive than that in conventional natural language processing tasks, making it a better task to evaluate textual representation methods. Shallow models like fastText, which can obtain comparable results with deep learning models in tasks like text classification, are not suitable in visual question answering.

* In proceedings of the 2018 SIAM International Conference on Data Mining (pp. 594-602). 2018 
* Conference paper at SDM 2018. 
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Enriching BERT with Knowledge Graph Embeddings for Document Classification

Sep 18, 2019
Malte Ostendorff, Peter Bourgonje, Maria Berger, Julian Moreno-Schneider, Georg Rehm, Bela Gipp

In this paper, we focus on the classification of books using short descriptive texts (cover blurbs) and additional metadata. Building upon BERT, a deep neural language model, we demonstrate how to combine text representations with metadata and knowledge graph embeddings, which encode author information. Compared to the standard BERT approach we achieve considerably better results for the classification task. For a more coarse-grained classification using eight labels we achieve an F1- score of 87.20, while a detailed classification using 343 labels yields an F1-score of 64.70. We make the source code and trained models of our experiments publicly available

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Semantic Analysis for Automated Evaluation of the Potential Impact of Research Articles

Apr 26, 2021
Neslihan Suzen, Alexander Gorban, Jeremy Levesley, Evgeny Mirkes

Can the analysis of the semantics of words used in the text of a scientific paper predict its future impact measured by citations? This study details examples of automated text classification that achieved 80% success rate in distinguishing between highly-cited and little-cited articles. Automated intelligent systems allow the identification of promising works that could become influential in the scientific community. The problems of quantifying the meaning of texts and representation of human language have been clear since the inception of Natural Language Processing. This paper presents a novel method for vector representation of text meaning based on information theory and show how this informational semantics is used for text classification on the basis of the Leicester Scientific Corpus. We describe the experimental framework used to evaluate the impact of scientific articles through their informational semantics. Our interest is in citation classification to discover how important semantics of texts are in predicting the citation count. We propose the semantics of texts as an important factor for citation prediction. For each article, our system extracts the abstract of paper, represents the words of the abstract as vectors in Meaning Space, automatically analyses the distribution of scientific categories (Web of Science categories) within the text of abstract, and then classifies papers according to citation counts (highly-cited, little-cited). We show that an informational approach to representing the meaning of a text has offered a way to effectively predict the scientific impact of research papers.

* 36 pages 
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Text Classification with Novelty Detection

Sep 23, 2020
Qi Qin, Wenpeng Hu, Bing Liu

This paper studies the problem of detecting novel or unexpected instances in text classification. In traditional text classification, the classes appeared in testing must have been seen in training. However, in many applications, this is not the case because in testing, we may see unexpected instances that are not from any of the training classes. In this paper, we propose a significantly more effective approach that converts the original problem to a pair-wise matching problem and then outputs how probable two instances belong to the same class. Under this approach, we present two models. The more effective model uses two embedding matrices of a pair of instances as two channels of a CNN. The output probabilities from such pairs are used to judge whether a test instance is from a seen class or is novel/unexpected. Experimental results show that the proposed method substantially outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines.

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Matching Images and Text with Multi-modal Tensor Fusion and Re-ranking

Aug 12, 2019
Tan Wang, Xing Xu, Yang Yang, Alan Hanjalic, Heng Tao Shen, Jingkuan Song

A major challenge in matching images and text is that they have intrinsically different data distributions and feature representations. Most existing approaches are based either on embedding or classification, the first one mapping image and text instances into a common embedding space for distance measuring, and the second one regarding image-text matching as a binary classification problem. Neither of these approaches can, however, balance the matching accuracy and model complexity well. We propose a novel framework that achieves remarkable matching performance with acceptable model complexity. Specifically, in the training stage, we propose a novel Multi-modal Tensor Fusion Network (MTFN) to explicitly learn an accurate image-text similarity function with rank-based tensor fusion rather than seeking a common embedding space for each image-text instance. Then, during testing, we deploy a generic Cross-modal Re-ranking (RR) scheme for refinement without requiring additional training procedure. Extensive experiments on two datasets demonstrate that our MTFN-RR consistently achieves the state-of-the-art matching performance with much less time complexity. The implementation code is available at

* 9 pages, 7 figures, ACM Multimedia 2019 
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