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"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Leap-LSTM: Enhancing Long Short-Term Memory for Text Categorization

May 28, 2019
Ting Huang, Gehui Shen, Zhi-Hong Deng

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) are widely used in the field of natural language processing (NLP), ranging from text categorization to question answering and machine translation. However, RNNs generally read the whole text from beginning to end or vice versa sometimes, which makes it inefficient to process long texts. When reading a long document for a categorization task, such as topic categorization, large quantities of words are irrelevant and can be skipped. To this end, we propose Leap-LSTM, an LSTM-enhanced model which dynamically leaps between words while reading texts. At each step, we utilize several feature encoders to extract messages from preceding texts, following texts and the current word, and then determine whether to skip the current word. We evaluate Leap-LSTM on several text categorization tasks: sentiment analysis, news categorization, ontology classification and topic classification, with five benchmark data sets. The experimental results show that our model reads faster and predicts better than standard LSTM. Compared to previous models which can also skip words, our model achieves better trade-offs between performance and efficiency.

* Accepted by IJCAI 2019, 7 pages, 3 figures 
  
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Connecting the Dots between Audio and Text without Parallel Data through Visual Knowledge Transfer

Dec 16, 2021
Yanpeng Zhao, Jack Hessel, Youngjae Yu, Ximing Lu, Rowan Zellers, Yejin Choi

Machines that can represent and describe environmental soundscapes have practical potential, e.g., for audio tagging and captioning systems. Prevailing learning paradigms have been relying on parallel audio-text data, which is, however, scarcely available on the web. We propose VIP-ANT that induces \textbf{A}udio-\textbf{T}ext alignment without using any parallel audio-text data. Our key idea is to share the image modality between bi-modal image-text representations and bi-modal image-audio representations; the image modality functions as a pivot and connects audio and text in a tri-modal embedding space implicitly. In a difficult zero-shot setting with no paired audio-text data, our model demonstrates state-of-the-art zero-shot performance on the ESC50 and US8K audio classification tasks, and even surpasses the supervised state of the art for Clotho caption retrieval (with audio queries) by 2.2\% [email protected] We further investigate cases of minimal audio-text supervision, finding that, e.g., just a few hundred supervised audio-text pairs increase the zero-shot audio classification accuracy by 8\% on US8K. However, to match human parity on some zero-shot tasks, our empirical scaling experiments suggest that we would need about $2^{21} \approx 2M$ supervised audio-caption pairs. Our work opens up new avenues for learning audio-text connections with little to no parallel audio-text data.

* Our code is available at https://github.com/zhaoyanpeng/vipant 
  
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SERC: Syntactic and Semantic Sequence based Event Relation Classification

Nov 09, 2021
Kritika Venkatachalam, Raghava Mutharaju, Sumit Bhatia

Temporal and causal relations play an important role in determining the dependencies between events. Classifying the temporal and causal relations between events has many applications, such as generating event timelines, event summarization, textual entailment and question answering. Temporal and causal relations are closely related and influence each other. So we propose a joint model that incorporates both temporal and causal features to perform causal relation classification. We use the syntactic structure of the text for identifying temporal and causal relations between two events from the text. We extract parts-of-speech tag sequence, dependency tag sequence and word sequence from the text. We propose an LSTM based model for temporal and causal relation classification that captures the interrelations between the three encoded features. Evaluation of our model on four popular datasets yields promising results for temporal and causal relation classification.

* Accepted at the 33rd IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI 2021) 
  
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Span Classification with Structured Information for Disfluency Detection in Spoken Utterances

Mar 30, 2022
Sreyan Ghosh, Sonal Kumar, Yaman Kumar Singla, Rajiv Ratn Shah, S. Umesh

Existing approaches in disfluency detection focus on solving a token-level classification task for identifying and removing disfluencies in text. Moreover, most works focus on leveraging only contextual information captured by the linear sequences in text, thus ignoring the structured information in text which is efficiently captured by dependency trees. In this paper, building on the span classification paradigm of entity recognition, we propose a novel architecture for detecting disfluencies in transcripts from spoken utterances, incorporating both contextual information through transformers and long-distance structured information captured by dependency trees, through graph convolutional networks (GCNs). Experimental results show that our proposed model achieves state-of-the-art results on the widely used English Switchboard for disfluency detection and outperforms prior-art by a significant margin. We make all our codes publicly available on GitHub (https://github.com/Sreyan88/Disfluency-Detection-with-Span-Classification)

  
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An Automated Text Categorization Framework based on Hyperparameter Optimization

Sep 14, 2017
Eric S. Tellez, Daniela Moctezuma, Sabino Miranda-Jímenez, Mario Graff

A great variety of text tasks such as topic or spam identification, user profiling, and sentiment analysis can be posed as a supervised learning problem and tackle using a text classifier. A text classifier consists of several subprocesses, some of them are general enough to be applied to any supervised learning problem, whereas others are specifically designed to tackle a particular task, using complex and computational expensive processes such as lemmatization, syntactic analysis, etc. Contrary to traditional approaches, we propose a minimalistic and wide system able to tackle text classification tasks independent of domain and language, namely microTC. It is composed by some easy to implement text transformations, text representations, and a supervised learning algorithm. These pieces produce a competitive classifier even in the domain of informally written text. We provide a detailed description of microTC along with an extensive experimental comparison with relevant state-of-the-art methods. mircoTC was compared on 30 different datasets. Regarding accuracy, microTC obtained the best performance in 20 datasets while achieves competitive results in the remaining 10. The compared datasets include several problems like topic and polarity classification, spam detection, user profiling and authorship attribution. Furthermore, it is important to state that our approach allows the usage of the technology even without knowledge of machine learning and natural language processing.

  
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A Brief Survey of Text Mining: Classification, Clustering and Extraction Techniques

Jul 28, 2017
Mehdi Allahyari, Seyedamin Pouriyeh, Mehdi Assefi, Saied Safaei, Elizabeth D. Trippe, Juan B. Gutierrez, Krys Kochut

The amount of text that is generated every day is increasing dramatically. This tremendous volume of mostly unstructured text cannot be simply processed and perceived by computers. Therefore, efficient and effective techniques and algorithms are required to discover useful patterns. Text mining is the task of extracting meaningful information from text, which has gained significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we describe several of the most fundamental text mining tasks and techniques including text pre-processing, classification and clustering. Additionally, we briefly explain text mining in biomedical and health care domains.

* some of References format have updated 
  
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Fine-grained Image Classification and Retrieval by Combining Visual and Locally Pooled Textual Features

Jan 14, 2020
Andres Mafla, Sounak Dey, Ali Furkan Biten, Lluis Gomez, Dimosthenis Karatzas

Text contained in an image carries high-level semantics that can be exploited to achieve richer image understanding. In particular, the mere presence of text provides strong guiding content that should be employed to tackle a diversity of computer vision tasks such as image retrieval, fine-grained classification, and visual question answering. In this paper, we address the problem of fine-grained classification and image retrieval by leveraging textual information along with visual cues to comprehend the existing intrinsic relation between the two modalities. The novelty of the proposed model consists of the usage of a PHOC descriptor to construct a bag of textual words along with a Fisher Vector Encoding that captures the morphology of text. This approach provides a stronger multimodal representation for this task and as our experiments demonstrate, it achieves state-of-the-art results on two different tasks, fine-grained classification and image retrieval.

* Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV 2020) Accepted paper 
  
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Detecting Text Formality: A Study of Text Classification Approaches

Apr 19, 2022
Daryna Dementieva, Ivan Trifinov, Andrey Likhachev, Alexander Panchenko

Formality is an important characteristic of text documents. The automatic detection of the formality level of a text is potentially beneficial for various natural language processing tasks, such as retrieval of texts with a desired formality level, integration in language learning and document editing platforms, or evaluating the desired conversation tone by chatbots. Recently two large-scale datasets were introduced for multiple languages featuring formality annotation. However, they were primarily used for the training of style transfer models. However, detection text formality on its own may also be a useful application. This work proposes the first systematic study of formality detection methods based on current (and more classic) machine learning methods and delivers the best-performing models for public usage. We conducted three types of experiments -- monolingual, multilingual, and cross-lingual. The study shows the overcome of BiLSTM-based models over transformer-based ones for the formality classification task. We release formality detection models for several languages yielding state of the art results and possessing tested cross-lingual capabilities.

  
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Empirical Study of Text Augmentation on Social Media Text in Vietnamese

Oct 09, 2020
Son T. Luu, Kiet Van Nguyen, Ngan Luu-Thuy Nguyen

In the text classification problem, the imbalance of labels in datasets affect the performance of the text-classification models. Practically, the data about user comments on social networking sites not altogether appeared - the administrators often only allow positive comments and hide negative comments. Thus, when collecting the data about user comments on the social network, the data is usually skewed about one label, which leads the dataset to become imbalanced and deteriorate the model's ability. The data augmentation techniques are applied to solve the imbalance problem between classes of the dataset, increasing the prediction model's accuracy. In this paper, we performed augmentation techniques on the VLSP2019 Hate Speech Detection on Vietnamese social texts and the UIT - VSFC: Vietnamese Students' Feedback Corpus for Sentiment Analysis. The result of augmentation increases by about 1.5% in the F1-macro score on both corpora.

* Accepted by The 34th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation 
  
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