Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!

Chrome logo  Add to Chrome

Firefox logo Add to Firefox

"Text Classification": models, code, and papers

Universal Adversarial Attacks with Natural Triggers for Text Classification

May 01, 2020
Liwei Song, Xinwei Yu, Hsuan-Tung Peng, Karthik Narasimhan

Recent work has demonstrated the vulnerability of modern text classifiers to universal adversarial attacks, which are input-agnostic sequence of words added to any input instance. Despite being highly successful, the word sequences produced in these attacks are often unnatural, do not carry much semantic meaning, and can be easily distinguished from natural text. In this paper, we develop adversarial attacks that appear closer to natural English phrases and yet confuse classification systems when added to benign inputs. To achieve this, we leverage an adversarially regularized autoencoder (ARAE) to generate triggers and propose a gradient-based search method to output natural text that fools a target classifier. Experiments on two different classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of our attacks while also being less identifiable than previous approaches on three simple detection metrics.

* code is available at 
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Improving Health Mentioning Classification of Tweets using Contrastive Adversarial Training

Mar 03, 2022
Pervaiz Iqbal Khan, Shoaib Ahmed Siddiqui, Imran Razzak, Andreas Dengel, Sheraz Ahmed

Health mentioning classification (HMC) classifies an input text as health mention or not. Figurative and non-health mention of disease words makes the classification task challenging. Learning the context of the input text is the key to this problem. The idea is to learn word representation by its surrounding words and utilize emojis in the text to help improve the classification results. In this paper, we improve the word representation of the input text using adversarial training that acts as a regularizer during fine-tuning of the model. We generate adversarial examples by perturbing the embeddings of the model and then train the model on a pair of clean and adversarial examples. Additionally, we utilize contrastive loss that pushes a pair of clean and perturbed examples close to each other and other examples away in the representation space. We train and evaluate the method on an extended version of the publicly available PHM2017 dataset. Experiments show an improvement of 1.0% over BERT-Large baseline and 0.6% over RoBERTa-Large baseline, whereas 5.8% over the state-of-the-art in terms of F1 score. Furthermore, we provide a brief analysis of the results by utilizing the power of explainable AI.

Access Paper or Ask Questions

Story Point Effort Estimation by Text Level Graph Neural Network

Mar 14, 2022
Hung Phan, Ali Jannesari

Estimating the software projects' efforts developed by agile methods is important for project managers or technical leads. It provides a summary as a first view of how many hours and developers are required to complete the tasks. There are research works on automatic predicting the software efforts, including Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) as the traditional approach for this problem. Graph Neural Network is a new approach that has been applied in Natural Language Processing for text classification. The advantages of Graph Neural Network are based on the ability to learn information via graph data structure, which has more representations such as the relationships between words compared to approaches of vectorizing sequence of words. In this paper, we show the potential and possible challenges of Graph Neural Network text classification in story point level estimation. By the experiments, we show that the GNN Text Level Classification can achieve as high accuracy as about 80 percent for story points level classification, which is comparable to the traditional approach. We also analyze the GNN approach and point out several current disadvantages that the GNN approach can improve for this problem or other problems in software engineering.

* accepted at The 1st International Workshop on Natural Language-based Software Engineering (to appear) 
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Abstractive Text Classification Using Sequence-to-convolution Neural Networks

Jun 24, 2018
Taehoon Kim, Jihoon Yang

We propose a new deep neural network model and its training scheme for text classification. Our model Sequence-to-convolution Neural Networks(Seq2CNN) consists of two blocks: Sequential Block that summarizes input texts and Convolution Block that receives summary of input and classifies it to a label. Seq2CNN is trained end-to-end to classify various-length texts without preprocessing inputs into fixed length. We also present Gradual Weight Shift(GWS) method that stabilizes training. GWS is applied to our model's loss function. We compared our model with word-based TextCNN trained with different data preprocessing methods. We obtained significant improvement in classification accuracy over word-based TextCNN without any ensemble or data augmentation.

Access Paper or Ask Questions

Neural Attentive Bag-of-Entities Model for Text Classification

Sep 10, 2019
Ikuya Yamada, Hiroyuki Shindo

This study proposes a Neural Attentive Bag-of-Entities model, which is a neural network model that performs text classification using entities in a knowledge base. Entities provide unambiguous and relevant semantic signals that are beneficial for capturing semantics in texts. We combine simple high-recall entity detection based on a dictionary, to detect entities in a document, with a novel neural attention mechanism that enables the model to focus on a small number of unambiguous and relevant entities. We tested the effectiveness of our model using two standard text classification datasets (i.e., the 20 Newsgroups and R8 datasets) and a popular factoid question answering dataset based on a trivia quiz game. As a result, our model achieved state-of-the-art results on all datasets. The source code of the proposed model is available online at

* Accepted to CoNLL 2019 
Access Paper or Ask Questions

AEDA: An Easier Data Augmentation Technique for Text Classification

Aug 30, 2021
Akbar Karimi, Leonardo Rossi, Andrea Prati

This paper proposes AEDA (An Easier Data Augmentation) technique to help improve the performance on text classification tasks. AEDA includes only random insertion of punctuation marks into the original text. This is an easier technique to implement for data augmentation than EDA method (Wei and Zou, 2019) with which we compare our results. In addition, it keeps the order of the words while changing their positions in the sentence leading to a better generalized performance. Furthermore, the deletion operation in EDA can cause loss of information which, in turn, misleads the network, whereas AEDA preserves all the input information. Following the baseline, we perform experiments on five different datasets for text classification. We show that using the AEDA-augmented data for training, the models show superior performance compared to using the EDA-augmented data in all five datasets. The source code is available for further study and reproduction of the results.

* Accepted at EMNLP 2021 Findings 
Access Paper or Ask Questions

VGCN-BERT: Augmenting BERT with Graph Embedding for Text Classification

Apr 12, 2020
Zhibin Lu, Pan Du, Jian-Yun Nie

Much progress has been made recently on text classification with methods based on neural networks. In particular, models using attention mechanism such as BERT have shown to have the capability of capturing the contextual information within a sentence or document. However, their ability of capturing the global information about the vocabulary of a language is more limited. This latter is the strength of Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN). In this paper, we propose VGCN-BERT model which combines the capability of BERT with a Vocabulary Graph Convolutional Network (VGCN). Local information and global information interact through different layers of BERT, allowing them to influence mutually and to build together a final representation for classification. In our experiments on several text classification datasets, our approach outperforms BERT and GCN alone, and achieve higher effectiveness than that reported in previous studies.

* J. M. Jose et al. (Eds.): ECIR 2020, LNCS 12035, pp.369-382, 2020 
* 12 pages, 2 figures 
Access Paper or Ask Questions

Multichannel CNN with Attention for Text Classification

Jun 29, 2020
Zhenyu Liu, Haiwei Huang, Chaohong Lu, Shengfei Lyu

Recent years, the approaches based on neural networks have shown remarkable potential for sentence modeling. There are two main neural network structures: recurrent neural network (RNN) and convolution neural network (CNN). RNN can capture long term dependencies and store the semantics of the previous information in a fixed-sized vector. However, RNN is a biased model and its ability to extract global semantics is restricted by the fixed-sized vector. Alternatively, CNN is able to capture n-gram features of texts by utilizing convolutional filters. But the width of convolutional filters restricts its performance. In order to combine the strengths of the two kinds of networks and alleviate their shortcomings, this paper proposes Attention-based Multichannel Convolutional Neural Network (AMCNN) for text classification. AMCNN utilizes a bi-directional long short-term memory to encode the history and future information of words into high dimensional representations, so that the information of both the front and back of the sentence can be fully expressed. Then the scalar attention and vectorial attention are applied to obtain multichannel representations. The scalar attention can calculate the word-level importance and the vectorial attention can calculate the feature-level importance. In the classification task, AMCNN uses a CNN structure to cpture word relations on the representations generated by the scalar and vectorial attention mechanism instead of calculating the weighted sums. It can effectively extract the n-gram features of the text. The experimental results on the benchmark datasets demonstrate that AMCNN achieves better performance than state-of-the-art methods. In addition, the visualization results verify the semantic richness of multichannel representations.

Access Paper or Ask Questions