A Verbal Autopsy is the record of an interview about the circumstances of an uncertified death. In developing countries, if a death occurs away from health facilities, a field-worker interviews a relative of the deceased about the circumstances of the death; this Verbal Autopsy can be reviewed off-site. We report on a comparative study of the processes involved in Text Classification applied to classifying Cause of Death: feature value representation; machine learning classification algorithms; and feature reduction strategies in order to identify the suitable approaches applicable to the classification of Verbal Autopsy text. We demonstrate that normalised term frequency and the standard TFiDF achieve comparable performance across a number of classifiers. The results also show Support Vector Machine is superior to other classification algorithms employed in this research. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of employing a "locally-semi-supervised" feature reduction strategy in order to increase performance accuracy.
Chest X-rays are one of the most common radiological examinations in daily clinical routines. Reporting thorax diseases using chest X-rays is often an entry-level task for radiologist trainees. Yet, reading a chest X-ray image remains a challenging job for learning-oriented machine intelligence, due to (1) shortage of large-scale machine-learnable medical image datasets, and (2) lack of techniques that can mimic the high-level reasoning of human radiologists that requires years of knowledge accumulation and professional training. In this paper, we show the clinical free-text radiological reports can be utilized as a priori knowledge for tackling these two key problems. We propose a novel Text-Image Embedding network (TieNet) for extracting the distinctive image and text representations. Multi-level attention models are integrated into an end-to-end trainable CNN-RNN architecture for highlighting the meaningful text words and image regions. We first apply TieNet to classify the chest X-rays by using both image features and text embeddings extracted from associated reports. The proposed auto-annotation framework achieves high accuracy (over 0.9 on average in AUCs) in assigning disease labels for our hand-label evaluation dataset. Furthermore, we transform the TieNet into a chest X-ray reporting system. It simulates the reporting process and can output disease classification and a preliminary report together. The classification results are significantly improved (6% increase on average in AUCs) compared to the state-of-the-art baseline on an unseen and hand-labeled dataset (OpenI).
Aspect classification, identifying aspects of text segments, facilitates numerous applications, such as sentiment analysis and review summarization. To alleviate the human effort on annotating massive texts, in this paper, we study the problem of classifying aspects based on only a few user-provided seed words for pre-defined aspects. The major challenge lies in how to handle the noisy misc aspect, which is designed for texts without any pre-defined aspects. Even domain experts have difficulties to nominate seed words for the misc aspect, making existing seed-driven text classification methods not applicable. We propose a novel framework, ARYA, which enables mutual enhancements between pre-defined aspects and the misc aspect via iterative classifier training and seed updating. Specifically, it trains a classifier for pre-defined aspects and then leverages it to induce the supervision for the misc aspect. The prediction results of the misc aspect are later utilized to filter out noisy seed words for pre-defined aspects. Experiments in two domains demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed framework, as well as the necessity and importance of properly modeling the misc aspect.
We propose a privacy-preserving Naive Bayes classifier and apply it to the problem of private text classification. In this setting, a party (Alice) holds a text message, while another party (Bob) holds a classifier. At the end of the protocol, Alice will only learn the result of the classifier applied to her text input and Bob learns nothing. Our solution is based on Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Our Rust implementation provides a fast and secure solution for the classification of unstructured text. Applying our solution to the case of spam detection (the solution is generic, and can be used in any other scenario in which the Naive Bayes classifier can be employed), we can classify an SMS as spam or ham in less than 340ms in the case where the dictionary size of Bob's model includes all words (n = 5200) and Alice's SMS has at most m = 160 unigrams. In the case with n = 369 and m = 8 (the average of a spam SMS in the database), our solution takes only 21ms.
The Marathi language is one of the prominent languages used in India. It is predominantly spoken by the people of Maharashtra. Over the past decade, the usage of language on online platforms has tremendously increased. However, research on Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches for Marathi text has not received much attention. Marathi is a morphologically rich language and uses a variant of the Devanagari script in the written form. This works aims to provide a comprehensive overview of available resources and models for Marathi text classification. We evaluate CNN, LSTM, ULMFiT, and BERT based models on two publicly available Marathi text classification datasets and present a comparative analysis. The pre-trained Marathi fast text word embeddings by Facebook and IndicNLP are used in conjunction with word-based models. We show that basic single layer models based on CNN and LSTM coupled with FastText embeddings perform on par with the BERT based models on the available datasets. We hope our paper aids focused research and experiments in the area of Marathi NLP.
Accurate emotion classification for online reviews is vital for business organizations to gain deeper insights into markets. Although deep learning has been successfully implemented in this area, accuracy and processing time are still major problems preventing it from reaching its full potential. This paper proposes an Enhanced Leaky Rectified Linear Unit activation and Weighted Loss (ELReLUWL) algorithm for enhanced text emotion classification and faster parameter convergence speed. This algorithm includes the definition of the inflection point and the slope for inputs on the left side of the inflection point to avoid gradient saturation. It also considers the weight of samples belonging to each class to compensate for the influence of data imbalance. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) combined with the proposed algorithm to increase the classification accuracy and decrease the processing time by eliminating the gradient saturation problem and minimizing the negative effect of data imbalance, demonstrated on a binary sentiment problem. The results show that the proposed solution achieves better classification performance in different data scenarios and different review types. The proposed model takes less convergence time to achieve model optimization with seven epochs against the current convergence time of 11.5 epochs on average. The proposed solution improves accuracy and reduces the processing time of text emotion classification. The solution provides an average class accuracy of 96.63% against a current average accuracy of 91.56%. It also provides a processing time of 23.3 milliseconds compared to the current average processing time of 33.2 milliseconds. Finally, this study solves the issues of gradient saturation and data imbalance. It enhances overall average class accuracy and decreases processing time.
Deep neural networks have demonstrated their superior performance in almost every Natural Language Processing task, however, their increasing complexity raises concerns. In particular, these networks require high expenses on computational hardware, and training budget is a concern for many. Even for a trained network, the inference phase can be too demanding for resource-constrained devices, thus limiting its applicability. The state-of-the-art transformer models are a vivid example. Simplifying the computations performed by a network is one way of relaxing the complexity requirements. In this paper, we propose an end to end binarized neural network architecture for the intent classification task. In order to fully utilize the potential of end to end binarization, both input representations (vector embeddings of tokens statistics) and the classifier are binarized. We demonstrate the efficiency of such architecture on the intent classification of short texts over three datasets and for text classification with a larger dataset. The proposed architecture achieves comparable to the state-of-the-art results on standard intent classification datasets while utilizing ~ 20-40% lesser memory and training time. Furthermore, the individual components of the architecture, such as binarized vector embeddings of documents or binarized classifiers, can be used separately with not necessarily fully binary architectures.
Manually labeling documents is tedious and expensive, but it is essential for training a traditional text classifier. In recent years, a few dataless text classification techniques have been proposed to address this problem. However, existing works mainly center on single-label classification problems, that is, each document is restricted to belonging to a single category. In this paper, we propose a novel Seed-guided Multi-label Topic Model, named SMTM. With a few seed words relevant to each category, SMTM conducts multi-label classification for a collection of documents without any labeled document. In SMTM, each category is associated with a single category-topic which covers the meaning of the category. To accommodate with multi-labeled documents, we explicitly model the category sparsity in SMTM by using spike and slab prior and weak smoothing prior. That is, without using any threshold tuning, SMTM automatically selects the relevant categories for each document. To incorporate the supervision of the seed words, we propose a seed-guided biased GPU (i.e., generalized Polya urn) sampling procedure to guide the topic inference of SMTM. Experiments on two public datasets show that SMTM achieves better classification accuracy than state-of-the-art alternatives and even outperforms supervised solutions in some scenarios.
Text classification has long been a staple in natural language processing with applications spanning across sentiment analysis, online content tagging, recommender systems and spam detection. However, text classification, by nature, suffers from a variety of issues stemming from dataset imbalance, text ambiguity, subjectivity and the lack of linguistic context in the data. In this paper, we explore the use of text ranking, commonly used in information retrieval, to carry out challenging classification-based tasks. We propose a novel end-to-end ranking approach consisting of a Transformer network responsible for producing representations for a pair of text sequences, which are in turn passed into a context aggregating network outputting ranking scores used to determine an ordering to the sequences based on some notion of relevance. We perform numerous experiments on publicly-available datasets and investigate the possibility of applying our ranking approach to certain problems often addressed using classification. In an experiment on a heavily-skewed sentiment analysis dataset, converting ranking results to classification labels yields an approximately 22% improvement over state-of-the-art text classification, demonstrating the efficacy of text ranking over text classification in certain scenarios.