It is a challenging task to predict financial markets. The complexity of this task is mainly due to the interaction between financial markets and market participants, who are not able to keep rational all the time, and often affected by emotions such as fear and ecstasy. Based on the state-of-the-art approach particularly for financial market predictions, a hybrid convolutional LSTM Based variational sequence-to-sequence model with attention (CLVSA), we propose a novel deep learning approach, named dual-CLVSA, to predict financial market movement with both trading data and the corresponding social sentiment measurements, each through a separate sequence-to-sequence channel. We evaluate the performance of our approach with backtesting on historical trading data of SPDR SP 500 Trust ETF over eight years. The experiment results show that dual-CLVSA can effectively fuse the two types of data, and verify that sentiment measurements are not only informative for financial market predictions, but they also contain extra profitable features to boost the performance of our predicting system.
We report results of a comparison of the accuracy of crowdworkers and seven NaturalLanguage Processing (NLP) toolkits in solving two important NLP tasks, named-entity recognition (NER) and entity-level sentiment(ELS) analysis. We here focus on a challenging dataset, 1,000 political tweets that were collected during the U.S. presidential primary election in February 2016. Each tweet refers to at least one of four presidential candidates,i.e., four named entities. The groundtruth, established by experts in political communication, has entity-level sentiment information for each candidate mentioned in the tweet. We tested several commercial and open-source tools. Our experiments show that, for our dataset of political tweets, the most accurate NER system, Google Cloud NL, performed almost on par with crowdworkers, but the most accurate ELS analysis system, TensiStrength, did not match the accuracy of crowdworkers by a large margin of more than 30 percent points.
Multimodal sentiment analysis aims to extract and integrate semantic information collected from multiple modalities to recognize the expressed emotions and sentiment in multimodal data. This research area's major concern lies in developing an extraordinary fusion scheme that can extract and integrate key information from various modalities. However, one issue that may restrict previous work to achieve a higher level is the lack of proper modeling for the dynamics of the competition between the independence and relevance among modalities, which could deteriorate fusion outcomes by causing the collapse of modality-specific feature space or introducing extra noise. To mitigate this, we propose the Bi-Bimodal Fusion Network (BBFN), a novel end-to-end network that performs fusion (relevance increment) and separation (difference increment) on pairwise modality representations. The two parts are trained simultaneously such that the combat between them is simulated. The model takes two bimodal pairs as input due to the known information imbalance among modalities. In addition, we leverage a gated control mechanism in the Transformer architecture to further improve the final output. Experimental results on three datasets (CMU-MOSI, CMU-MOSEI, and UR-FUNNY) verifies that our model significantly outperforms the SOTA. The implementation of this work is available at https://github.com/declare-lab/BBFN.
During the course of a Humanitarian Assistance-Disaster Relief (HADR) crisis, that can happen anywhere in the world, real-time information is often posted online by the people in need of help which, in turn, can be used by different stakeholders involved with management of the crisis. Automated processing of such posts can considerably improve the effectiveness of such efforts; for example, understanding the aggregated emotion from affected populations in specific areas may help inform decision-makers on how to best allocate resources for an effective disaster response. However, these efforts may be severely limited by the availability of resources for the local language. The ongoing DARPA project Low Resource Languages for Emergent Incidents (LORELEI) aims to further language processing technologies for low resource languages in the context of such a humanitarian crisis. In this work, we describe our submission for the 2019 Sentiment, Emotion and Cognitive state (SEC) pilot task of the LORELEI project. We describe a collection of sentiment analysis systems included in our submission along with the features extracted. Our fielded systems obtained the best results in both English and Spanish language evaluations of the SEC pilot task.
As the first step to model emotional state of a person, we build sentiment analysis models with existing deep neural network algorithms and compare the models with psychological measurements to enlighten the relationship. In the experiments, we first examined psychological state of 64 participants and asked them to summarize the story of a book, Chronicle of a Death Foretold (Marquez, 1981). Secondly, we trained models using crawled 365,802 movie review data; then we evaluated participants' summaries using the pretrained model as a concept of transfer learning. With the background that emotion affects on memories, we investigated the relationship between the evaluation score of the summaries from computational models and the examined psychological measurements. The result shows that although CNN performed the best among other deep neural network algorithms (LSTM, GRU), its results are not related to the psychological state. Rather, GRU shows more explainable results depending on the psychological state. The contribution of this paper can be summarized as follows: (1) we enlighten the relationship between computational models and psychological measurements. (2) we suggest this framework as objective methods to evaluate the emotion; the real sentiment analysis of a person.
Sentiment analysis is a task that may suffer from a lack of data in certain cases, as the datasets are often generated and annotated by humans. In cases where data is inadequate for training discriminative models, generate models may aid training via data augmentation. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are one such model that has advanced the state of the art in several tasks, including as image and text generation. In this paper, I train GAN models on low resource datasets, then use them for the purpose of data augmentation towards improving sentiment classifier generalization. Given the constraints of limited data, I explore various techniques to train the GAN models. I also present an analysis of the quality of generated GAN data as more training data for the GAN is made available. In this analysis, the generated data is evaluated as a test set (against a model trained on real data points) as well as a training set to train classification models. Finally, I also conduct a visual analysis by projecting the generated and the real data into a two-dimensional space using the t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) method.
Aspect-level sentiment classification (ASC) aims at identifying sentiment polarities towards aspects in a sentence, where the aspect can behave as a general Aspect Category (AC) or a specific Aspect Term (AT). However, due to the especially expensive and labor-intensive labeling, existing public corpora in AT-level are all relatively small. Meanwhile, most of the previous methods rely on complicated structures with given scarce data, which largely limits the efficacy of the neural models. In this paper, we exploit a new direction named coarse-to-fine task transfer, which aims to leverage knowledge learned from a rich-resource source domain of the coarse-grained AC task, which is more easily accessible, to improve the learning in a low-resource target domain of the fine-grained AT task. To resolve both the aspect granularity inconsistency and feature mismatch between domains, we propose a Multi-Granularity Alignment Network (MGAN). In MGAN, a novel Coarse2Fine attention guided by an auxiliary task can help the AC task modeling at the same fine-grained level with the AT task. To alleviate the feature false alignment, a contrastive feature alignment method is adopted to align aspect-specific feature representations semantically. In addition, a large-scale multi-domain dataset for the AC task is provided. Empirically, extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the MGAN.
Identification of user's opinions from natural language text has become an exciting field of research due to its growing applications in the real world. The research field is known as sentiment analysis and classification, where aspect category detection (ACD) and aspect category polarity (ACP) are two important sub-tasks of aspect-based sentiment analysis. The goal in ACD is to specify which aspect of the entity comes up in opinion while ACP aims to specify the polarity of each aspect category from the ACD task. The previous works mostly propose separate solutions for these two sub-tasks. This paper focuses on the ACD and ACP sub-tasks to solve both problems simultaneously. The proposed method carries out multi-label classification where four different deep models were employed and comparatively evaluated to examine their performance. A dataset of Persian reviews was collected from CinemaTicket website including 2200 samples from 14 categories. The developed models were evaluated using the collected dataset in terms of example-based and label-based metrics. The results indicate the high applicability and preference of the CNN and GRU models in comparison to LSTM and Bi-LSTM.
Sentiment analysis of social media posts and comments for various marketing and emotional purposes is gaining recognition. With the increasing presence of code-mixed content in various native languages, there is a need for ardent research to produce promising results. This research paper bestows a tiny contribution to this research in the form of sentiment analysis of code-mixed social media comments in the popular Dravidian languages Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam. It describes the work for the shared task conducted by Dravidian-CodeMix at FIRE 2021 by employing pre-trained models like ULMFiT and multilingual BERT fine-tuned on the code-mixed dataset, transliteration (TRAI) of the same, English translations (TRAA) of the TRAI data and the combination of all the three. The results are recorded in this research paper where the best models stood 4th, 5th and 10th ranks in the Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam tasks respectively.
User reviews have an essential role in the success of the developed mobile apps. User reviews in the textual form are unstructured data, creating a very high complexity when processed for sentiment analysis. Previous approaches that have been used often ignore the context of reviews. In addition, the relatively small data makes the model overfitting. A new approach, BERT, has been introduced as a transfer learning model with a pre-trained model that has previously been trained to have a better context representation. This study examines the effectiveness of fine-tuning BERT for sentiment analysis using two different pre-trained models. Besides the multilingual pre-trained model, we use the pre-trained model that only has been trained in Indonesian. The dataset used is Indonesian user reviews of the ten best apps in 2020 in Google Play sites. We also perform hyper-parameter tuning to find the optimum trained model. Two training data labeling approaches were also tested to determine the effectiveness of the model, which is score-based and lexicon-based. The experimental results show that pre-trained models trained in Indonesian have better average accuracy on lexicon-based data. The pre-trained Indonesian model highest accuracy is 84%, with 25 epochs and a training time of 24 minutes. These results are better than all of the machine learning and multilingual pre-trained models.