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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Politics and Virality in the Time of Twitter: A Large-Scale Cross-Party Sentiment Analysis in Greece, Spain and United Kingdom

Feb 01, 2022
Dimosthenis Antypas, Alun Preece, Jose Camacho Collados

Social media has become extremely influential when it comes to policy making in modern societies especially in the western world (e.g., 48% of Europeans use social media every day or almost every day). Platforms such as Twitter allow users to follow politicians, thus making citizens more involved in political discussion. In the same vein, politicians use Twitter to express their opinions, debate among others on current topics and promote their political agenda aiming to influence voter behaviour. Previous studies have shown that tweets conveying negative sentiment are likely to be retweeted more frequently. In this paper, we attempt to analyse tweets from politicians from different countries and explore if their tweets follow the same trend. Utilising state-of-the-art pre-trained language models we performed sentiment analysis on multilingual tweets collected from members of parliament of Greece, Spain and United Kingdom, including devolved administrations. We achieved this by systematically exploring and analysing the differences between influential and less popular tweets. Our analysis indicates that politicians' negatively charged tweets spread more widely, especially in more recent times, and highlights interesting trends in the intersection of sentiment and popularity.

* 12 pages, 5 figures, for code and data used see https://github.com/cardiffnlp/politics-and-virality-twitter 

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Knowledge Graph Augmented Network Towards Multiview Representation Learning for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis

Jan 13, 2022
Qihuang Zhong, Liang Ding, Juhua Liu, Bo Du, Hua Jin, Dacheng Tao

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task of sentiment analysis. To better comprehend long complicated sentences and obtain accurate aspect-specific information, linguistic and commonsense knowledge are generally required in this task. However, most methods employ complicated and inefficient approaches to incorporate external knowledge, e.g., directly searching the graph nodes. Additionally, the complementarity between external knowledge and linguistic information has not been thoroughly studied. To this end, we propose a knowledge graph augmented network (KGAN), which aims to effectively incorporate external knowledge with explicitly syntactic and contextual information. In particular, KGAN captures the sentiment feature representations from multiple different perspectives, i.e., context-, syntax- and knowledge-based. First, KGAN learns the contextual and syntactic representations in parallel to fully extract the semantic features. Then, KGAN integrates the knowledge graphs into the embedding space, based on which the aspect-specific knowledge representations are further obtained via an attention mechanism. Last, we propose a hierarchical fusion module to complement these multiview representations in a local-to-global manner. Extensive experiments on three popular ABSA benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our KGAN. Notably, with the help of the pretrained model of RoBERTa, KGAN achieves a new record of state-of-the-art performance.

* Under review 

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A Comparative Study of Sentiment Analysis Using NLP and Different Machine Learning Techniques on US Airline Twitter Data

Oct 02, 2021
Md. Taufiqul Haque Khan Tusar, Md. Touhidul Islam

Today's business ecosystem has become very competitive. Customer satisfaction has become a major focus for business growth. Business organizations are spending a lot of money and human resources on various strategies to understand and fulfill their customer's needs. But, because of defective manual analysis on multifarious needs of customers, many organizations are failing to achieve customer satisfaction. As a result, they are losing customer's loyalty and spending extra money on marketing. We can solve the problems by implementing Sentiment Analysis. It is a combined technique of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML). Sentiment Analysis is broadly used to extract insights from wider public opinion behind certain topics, products, and services. We can do it from any online available data. In this paper, we have introduced two NLP techniques (Bag-of-Words and TF-IDF) and various ML classification algorithms (Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naive Bayes, Random Forest) to find an effective approach for Sentiment Analysis on a large, imbalanced, and multi-classed dataset. Our best approaches provide 77% accuracy using Support Vector Machine and Logistic Regression with Bag-of-Words technique.

* 4 pages, 2 figures, Presented in the Proceeding of the International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Information Technology (ICECIT), 14-16 September 2021 

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Sentiment Analysis of Users' Reviews on COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps with a Benchmark Dataset

Mar 01, 2021
Kashif Ahmad, Firoj Alam, Junaid Qadir, Basheer Qolomany, Imran Khan, Talhat Khan, Muhammad Suleman, Naina Said, Syed Zohaib Hassan, Asma Gul, Ala Al-Fuqaha

Contact tracing has been globally adopted in the fight to control the infection rate of COVID-19. Thanks to digital technologies, such as smartphones and wearable devices, contacts of COVID-19 patients can be easily traced and informed about their potential exposure to the virus. To this aim, several interesting mobile applications have been developed. However, there are ever-growing concerns over the working mechanism and performance of these applications. The literature already provides some interesting exploratory studies on the community's response to the applications by analyzing information from different sources, such as news and users' reviews of the applications. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no existing solution that automatically analyzes users' reviews and extracts the evoked sentiments. In this work, we propose a pipeline starting from manual annotation via a crowd-sourcing study and concluding on the development and training of AI models for automatic sentiment analysis of users' reviews. In total, we employ eight different methods achieving up to an average F1-Scores 94.8% indicating the feasibility of automatic sentiment analysis of users' reviews on the COVID-19 contact tracing applications. We also highlight the key advantages, drawbacks, and users' concerns over the applications. Moreover, we also collect and annotate a large-scale dataset composed of 34,534 reviews manually annotated from the contract tracing applications of 46 distinct countries. The presented analysis and the dataset are expected to provide a baseline/benchmark for future research in the domain.

* 11 pages, 6 figures 

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A Deep Language-independent Network to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on the World via Sentiment Analysis

Nov 20, 2020
Ashima Yadav, Dinesh Kumar Vishwakarma

Towards the end of 2019, Wuhan experienced an outbreak of novel coronavirus, which soon spread all over the world, resulting in a deadly pandemic that infected millions of people around the globe. The government and public health agencies followed many strategies to counter the fatal virus. However, the virus severely affected the social and economic lives of the people. In this paper, we extract and study the opinion of people from the top five worst affected countries by the virus, namely USA, Brazil, India, Russia, and South Africa. We propose a deep language-independent Multilevel Attention-based Conv-BiGRU network (MACBiG-Net), which includes embedding layer, word-level encoded attention, and sentence-level encoded attention mechanism to extract the positive, negative, and neutral sentiments. The embedding layer encodes the sentence sequence into a real-valued vector. The word-level and sentence-level encoding is performed by a 1D Conv-BiGRU based mechanism, followed by word-level and sentence-level attention, respectively. We further develop a COVID-19 Sentiment Dataset by crawling the tweets from Twitter. Extensive experiments on our proposed dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MACBiG-Net. Also, attention-weights visualization and in-depth results analysis shows that the proposed network has effectively captured the sentiments of the people.


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Emerging App Issue Identification via Online Joint Sentiment-Topic Tracing

Aug 23, 2020
Cuiyun Gao, Jichuan Zeng, Zhiyuan Wen, David Lo, Xin Xia, Irwin King, Michael R. Lyu

Millions of mobile apps are available in app stores, such as Apple's App Store and Google Play. For a mobile app, it would be increasingly challenging to stand out from the enormous competitors and become prevalent among users. Good user experience and well-designed functionalities are the keys to a successful app. To achieve this, popular apps usually schedule their updates frequently. If we can capture the critical app issues faced by users in a timely and accurate manner, developers can make timely updates, and good user experience can be ensured. There exist prior studies on analyzing reviews for detecting emerging app issues. These studies are usually based on topic modeling or clustering techniques. However, the short-length characteristics and sentiment of user reviews have not been considered. In this paper, we propose a novel emerging issue detection approach named MERIT to take into consideration the two aforementioned characteristics. Specifically, we propose an Adaptive Online Biterm Sentiment-Topic (AOBST) model for jointly modeling topics and corresponding sentiments that takes into consideration app versions. Based on the AOBST model, we infer the topics negatively reflected in user reviews for one app version, and automatically interpret the meaning of the topics with most relevant phrases and sentences. Experiments on popular apps from Google Play and Apple's App Store demonstrate the effectiveness of MERIT in identifying emerging app issues, improving the state-of-the-art method by 22.3% in terms of F1-score. In terms of efficiency, MERIT can return results within acceptable time.


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MuSe 2020 -- The First International Multimodal Sentiment Analysis in Real-life Media Challenge and Workshop

Apr 30, 2020
Lukas Stappen, Alice Baird, Georgios Rizos, Panagiotis Tzirakis, Xinchen Du, Felix Hafner, Lea Schumann, Adria Mallol-Ragolta, Björn W. Schuller, Iulia Lefter, Erik Cambria, Ioannis Kompatsiaris

Multimodal Sentiment Analysis in Real-life Media (MuSe) 2020 is a Challenge-based Workshop focusing on the tasks of sentiment recognition, as well as emotion-target engagement and trustworthiness detection by means of more comprehensively integrating the audio-visual and language modalities. The purpose of MuSe 2020 is to bring together communities from different disciplines; mainly, the audio-visual emotion recognition community (signal-based), and the sentiment analysis community (symbol-based). We present three distinct sub-challenges: MuSe-Wild, which focuses on continuous emotion (arousal and valence) prediction; MuSe-Topic, in which participants recognise domain-specific topics as the target of 3-class (low, medium, high) emotions; and MuSe-Trust, in which the novel aspect of trustworthiness is to be predicted. In this paper, we provide detailed information on MuSe-CaR, the first of its kind in-the-wild database, which is utilised for the challenge, as well as the state-of-the-art features and modelling approaches applied. For each sub-challenge, a competitive baseline for participants is set; namely, on test we report for MuSe-Wild a combined (valence and arousal) CCC of .2568, for MuSe-Topic a score (computed as 0.34$\cdot$ UAR + 0.66$\cdot$F1) of 76.78 % on the 10-class topic and 40.64 % on the 3-class emotion prediction, and for MuSe-Trust a CCC of .4359.

* Baseline Paper MuSe 2020, MuSe Workshop Challenge, ACM Multimedia 

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What Emotions Make One or Five Stars? Understanding Ratings of Online Product Reviews by Sentiment Analysis and XAI

Feb 29, 2020
Chaehan So

When people buy products online, they primarily base their decisions on the recommendations of others given in online reviews. The current work analyzed these online reviews by sentiment analysis and used the extracted sentiments as features to predict the product ratings by several machine learning algorithms. These predictions were disentangled by various meth-ods of explainable AI (XAI) to understand whether the model showed any bias during prediction. Study 1 benchmarked these algorithms (knn, support vector machines, random forests, gradient boosting machines, XGBoost) and identified random forests and XGBoost as best algorithms for predicting the product ratings. In Study 2, the analysis of global feature importance identified the sentiment joy and the emotional valence negative as most predictive features. Two XAI visualization methods, local feature attributions and partial dependency plots, revealed several incorrect prediction mechanisms on the instance-level. Performing the benchmarking as classification, Study 3 identified a high no-information rate of 64.4% that indicated high class imbalance as underlying reason for the identified problems. In conclusion, good performance by machine learning algorithms must be taken with caution because the dataset, as encountered in this work, could be biased towards certain predictions. This work demonstrates how XAI methods reveal such prediction bias.

* To be published in: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in HCI, AI-HCI, Held as Part of HCI International 2020, Kopenhagen, Denmark, July 19-24, Springer 

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DCR-Net: A Deep Co-Interactive Relation Network for Joint Dialog Act Recognition and Sentiment Classification

Aug 16, 2020
Libo Qin, Wanxiang Che, Yangming Li, Minheng Ni, Ting Liu

In dialog system, dialog act recognition and sentiment classification are two correlative tasks to capture speakers intentions, where dialog act and sentiment can indicate the explicit and the implicit intentions separately. Most of the existing systems either treat them as separate tasks or just jointly model the two tasks by sharing parameters in an implicit way without explicitly modeling mutual interaction and relation. To address this problem, we propose a Deep Co-Interactive Relation Network (DCR-Net) to explicitly consider the cross-impact and model the interaction between the two tasks by introducing a co-interactive relation layer. In addition, the proposed relation layer can be stacked to gradually capture mutual knowledge with multiple steps of interaction. Especially, we thoroughly study different relation layers and their effects. Experimental results on two public datasets (Mastodon and Dailydialog) show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art joint model by 4.3% and 3.4% in terms of F1 score on dialog act recognition task, 5.7% and 12.4% on sentiment classification respectively. Comprehensive analysis empirically verifies the effectiveness of explicitly modeling the relation between the two tasks and the multi-steps interaction mechanism. Finally, we employ the Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformer (BERT) in our framework, which can further boost our performance in both tasks.

* Accepted by AAAI2020 (Oral) 

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Sentiment Analysis based Multi-person Multi-criteria Decision Making Methodology: Using Natural Language Processing and Deep Learning for Decision Aid

Jul 31, 2020
Cristina Zuheros, Eugenio Martínez-Cámara, Enrique Herrera-Viedma, Francisco Herrera

Decision making models are constrained by taking the expert evaluations with pre-defined numerical or linguistic terms. We claim that the use of sentiment analysis will allow decision making models to consider expert evaluations in natural language. Accordingly, we propose the Sentiment Analysis based Multi-person Multi-criteria Decision Making (SA-MpMcDM) methodology, which builds the expert evaluations from their natural language reviews, and even from their numerical ratings if they are available. The SA-MpMcDM methodology incorporates an end-to-end multi-task deep learning model for aspect based sentiment analysis, named DMuABSA model, able to identify the aspect categories mentioned in an expert review, and to distill their opinions and criteria. The individual expert evaluations are aggregated via a criteria weighting through the attention of the experts. We evaluate the methodology in a restaurant decision problem, hence we build the TripR-2020 dataset of restaurant reviews, which we manually annotate and release. We analyze the SA-MpMcDM methodology in different scenarios using and not using natural language and numerical evaluations. The analysis shows that the combination of both sources of information results in a higher quality preference vector.


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