Transgender community is experiencing a huge disparity in mental health conditions compared with the general population. Interpreting the social medial data posted by transgender people may help us understand the sentiments of these sexual minority groups better and apply early interventions. In this study, we manually categorize 300 social media comments posted by transgender people to the sentiment of negative, positive, and neutral. 5 machine learning algorithms and 2 deep neural networks are adopted to build sentiment analysis classifiers based on the annotated data. Results show that our annotations are reliable with a high Cohen's Kappa score over 0.8 across all three classes. LSTM model yields an optimal performance of accuracy over 0.85 and AUC of 0.876. Our next step will focus on using advanced natural language processing algorithms on a larger annotated dataset.
The Web has become the main platform where people express their opinions about entities of interest and their associated aspects. Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) aims to automatically compute the sentiment towards these aspects from opinionated text. In this paper we extend the state-of-the-art Hybrid Approach for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (HAABSA) method in two directions. First we replace the non-contextual word embeddings with deep contextual word embeddings in order to better cope with the word semantics in a given text. Second, we use hierarchical attention by adding an extra attention layer to the HAABSA high-level representations in order to increase the method flexibility in modeling the input data. Using two standard datasets (SemEval 2015 and SemEval 2016) we show that the proposed extensions improve the accuracy of the built model for ABSA.
The aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task that aims to determine the sentiment polarity towards targeted aspect terms occurring in the sentence. The development of the ABSA task is very much hindered by the lack of annotated data. To tackle this, the prior works have studied the possibility of utilizing the sentiment analysis (SA) datasets to assist in training the ABSA model, primarily via pretraining or multi-task learning. In this article, we follow this line, and for the first time, we manage to apply the Pseudo-Label (PL) method to merge the two homogeneous tasks. While it seems straightforward to use generated pseudo labels to handle this case of label granularity unification for two highly related tasks, we identify its major challenge in this paper and propose a novel framework, dubbed as Dual-granularity Pseudo Labeling (DPL). Further, similar to PL, we regard the DPL as a general framework capable of combining other prior methods in the literature. Through extensive experiments, DPL has achieved state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks surpassing the prior work significantly.
In current times, the importance of online hotel review sites has become more and more apparent. Users of these sites reference of reviews strongly influences their purchase behavior and as such, reviews are important to companies and researchers alike. The majority of review sites offer both text reviews and numerical hotel ratings, and both information sources are widely used by researchers as a representation of a customer's sentiment and opinion. However, an opinion is a difficult concept to measure, and as such, depending on the relation these two sources have, it would be apparent whether or not it is safe to consider them equally in research. In this study we utilize an entropy-based Support Vector Machine to classify positive and negative sentiments in hotel reviews from the site Ctrip, then calculating the ratio of positive and negative sentiment in each review and examine their correlation with said review's rating score using Spearman and Kendall Correlation coefficients and Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC).
The amount of textual data generation has increased enormously due to the effortless access of the Internet and the evolution of various web 2.0 applications. These textual data productions resulted because of the people express their opinion, emotion or sentiment about any product or service in the form of tweets, Facebook post or status, blog write up, and reviews. Sentiment analysis deals with the process of computationally identifying and categorizing opinions expressed in a piece of text, especially in order to determine whether the writer's attitude toward a particular topic is positive, negative, or neutral. The impact of customer review is significant to perceive the customer attitude towards a restaurant. Thus, the automatic detection of sentiment from reviews is advantageous for the restaurant owners, or service providers and customers to make their decisions or services more satisfactory. This paper proposes, a deep learning-based technique (i.e., BiLSTM) to classify the reviews provided by the clients of the restaurant into positive and negative polarities. A corpus consists of 8435 reviews is constructed to evaluate the proposed technique. In addition, a comparative analysis of the proposed technique with other machine learning algorithms presented. The results of the evaluation on test dataset show that BiLSTM technique produced in the highest accuracy of 91.35%.
Automatic sentiment analysis play vital role in decision making. Many organizations spend a lot of budget to understand their customer satisfaction by manually going over their feedback/comments or tweets. Automatic sentiment analysis can give overall picture of the comments received against any event, product, or activity. Usually, the comments/tweets are classified into two main classes that are negative or positive. However, the negative comments are too abstract to understand the basic reason or the context. organizations are interested to identify the exact reason for the negativity. In this research study, we hierarchically goes down into negative comments, and link them with more classes. Tweets are extracted from social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook. If the sentiment analysis classifies any tweet into negative class, then we further try to associates that negative comments with more possible negative classes. Based on expert opinions, the negative comments/tweets are further classified into 8 classes. Different machine learning algorithms are evaluated and their accuracy are reported.
For many business applications, we often seek to analyze sentiments associated with any arbitrary aspects of commercial products, despite having a very limited amount of labels or even without any labels at all. However, existing aspect target sentiment classification (ATSC) models are not trainable if annotated datasets are not available. Even with labeled data, they fall short of reaching satisfactory performance. To address this, we propose simple approaches that better solve ATSC with natural language prompts, enabling the task under zero-shot cases and enhancing supervised settings, especially for few-shot cases. Under the few-shot setting for SemEval 2014 Task 4 laptop domain, our method of reformulating ATSC as an NLI task outperforms supervised SOTA approaches by up to 24.13 accuracy points and 33.14 macro F1 points. Moreover, we demonstrate that our prompts could handle implicitly stated aspects as well: our models reach about 77% accuracy on detecting sentiments for aspect categories (e.g., food), which do not necessarily appear within the text, even though we trained the models only with explicitly mentioned aspect terms (e.g., fajitas) from just 16 reviews - while the accuracy of the no-prompt baseline is only around 65%.
Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis is a fine-grained sentiment analysis task, which focuses on detecting the sentiment polarity towards the aspect in a sentence. However, it is always sensitive to the multi-aspect challenge, where features of multiple aspects in a sentence will affect each other. To mitigate this issue, we design a novel training framework, called Contrastive Cross-Channel Data Augmentation (C3DA). A source sentence will be fed a domain-specific generator to obtain some synthetic sentences and is concatenated with these generated sentences to conduct supervised training and proposed contrastive training. To be specific, considering the limited ABSA labeled data, we also introduce some parameter-efficient approaches to complete sentences generation. This novel generation method consists of an Aspect Augmentation Channel (AAC) to generate aspect-specific sentences and a Polarity Augmentation (PAC) to generate polarity-inverted sentences. According to our extensive experiments, our C3DA framework can outperform those baselines without any augmentations by about 1\% on accuracy and Macro-F1.
Social media is abundant in visual and textual information presented together or in isolation. Memes are the most popular form, belonging to the former class. In this paper, we present our approaches for the Memotion Analysis problem as posed in SemEval-2020 Task 8. The goal of this task is to classify memes based on their emotional content and sentiment. We leverage techniques from Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Computer Vision (CV) towards the sentiment classification of internet memes (Subtask A). We consider Bimodal (text and image) as well as Unimodal (text-only) techniques in our study ranging from the Na\"ive Bayes classifier to Transformer-based approaches. Our results show that a text-only approach, a simple Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) with Word2vec embeddings as input, performs superior to all the others. We stand first in the Sentiment analysis task with a relative improvement of 63% over the baseline macro-F1 score. Our work is relevant to any task concerned with the combination of different modalities.
We consider the task of text attribute transfer: transforming a sentence to alter a specific attribute (e.g., sentiment) while preserving its attribute-independent content (e.g., changing "screen is just the right size" to "screen is too small"). Our training data includes only sentences labeled with their attribute (e.g., positive or negative), but not pairs of sentences that differ only in their attributes, so we must learn to disentangle attributes from attribute-independent content in an unsupervised way. Previous work using adversarial methods has struggled to produce high-quality outputs. In this paper, we propose simpler methods motivated by the observation that text attributes are often marked by distinctive phrases (e.g., "too small"). Our strongest method extracts content words by deleting phrases associated with the sentence's original attribute value, retrieves new phrases associated with the target attribute, and uses a neural model to fluently combine these into a final output. On human evaluation, our best method generates grammatical and appropriate responses on 22% more inputs than the best previous system, averaged over three attribute transfer datasets: altering sentiment of reviews on Yelp, altering sentiment of reviews on Amazon, and altering image captions to be more romantic or humorous.