Sentiment analysis is attracting more and more attentions and has become a very hot research topic due to its potential applications in personalized recommendation, opinion mining, etc. Most of the existing methods are based on either textual or visual data and can not achieve satisfactory results, as it is very hard to extract sufficient information from only one single modality data. Inspired by the observation that there exists strong semantic correlation between visual and textual data in social medias, we propose an end-to-end deep fusion convolutional neural network to jointly learn textual and visual sentiment representations from training examples. The two modality information are fused together in a pooling layer and fed into fully-connected layers to predict the sentiment polarity. We evaluate the proposed approach on two widely used data sets. Results show that our method achieves promising result compared with the state-of-the-art methods which clearly demonstrate its competency.
Emojis are widely used in online social networks to express emotions, attitudes, and opinions. As emotional-oriented characters, emojis can be modeled as important features of emotions towards the recipient or subject for sentiment analysis. However, existing methods mainly take emojis as heuristic information that fails to resolve the problem of ambiguity noise. Recent researches have utilized emojis as an independent input to classify text sentiment but they ignore the emotional impact of the interaction between text and emojis. It results that the emotional semantics of emojis cannot be fully explored. In this paper, we propose an emoji-based co-attention network that learns the mutual emotional semantics between text and emojis on microblogs. Our model adopts the co-attention mechanism based on bidirectional long short-term memory incorporating the text and emojis, and integrates a squeeze-and-excitation block in a convolutional neural network classifier to increase its sensitivity to emotional semantic features. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly outperform several baselines for sentiment analysis on short texts of social media.
We widely use emojis in social networking to heighten, mitigate or negate the sentiment of the text. Emoji suggestions already exist in many cross-platform applications but an emoji is predicted solely based a few prominent words instead of understanding the subject and substance of the text. Through this paper, we showcase the importance of using Twitter features to help the model understand the sentiment involved and hence to predict the most suitable emoji for the text. Hashtags and Application Sources like Android, etc. are two features which we found to be important yet underused in emoji prediction and Twitter sentiment analysis on the whole. To approach this shortcoming and to further understand emoji behavioral patterns, we propose a more balanced dataset by crawling additional Twitter data, including timestamp, hashtags, and application source acting as additional attributes to the tweet. Our data analysis and neural network model performance evaluations depict that using hashtags and application sources as features allows to encode different information and is effective in emoji prediction.
Target-level aspect-based sentiment analysis (TABSA) is a long-standing challenge, which requires fine-grained semantical reasoning about a certain aspect. As manual annotation over the aspects is laborious and time-consuming, the amount of labeled data is limited for supervised learning. This paper proposes a semi-supervised method for the TABSA problem based on the Variational Autoencoder (VAE). VAE is a powerful deep generative model which models the latent distribution via variational inference. By disentangling the latent representation into the aspect-specific sentiment and the context, the method implicitly induces the underlying sentiment prediction for the unlabeled data, which then benefits the TABSA classifier. Our method is classifier-agnostic, i.e., the classifier is an independent module and various advanced supervised models can be integrated. Experimental results are obtained on the SemEval 2014 task 4 and show that our method is effective with four classical classifiers. The proposed method outperforms two general semi-supervised methods and achieves competitive performance.
Effective representation of a text is critical for various natural language processing tasks. For the particular task of Chinese sentiment analysis, it is important to understand and choose an effective representation of a text from different forms of Chinese representations such as word, character and pinyin. This paper presents a systematic study of the effect of these representations for Chinese sentiment analysis by proposing a multi-channel convolutional neural network (MCCNN), where each channel corresponds to a representation. Experimental results show that: (1) Word wins on the dataset of low OOV rate while character wins otherwise; (2) Using these representations in combination generally improves the performance; (3) The representations based on MCCNN outperform conventional ngram features using SVM; (4) The proposed MCCNN model achieves the competitive performance against the state-of-the-art model fastText for Chinese sentiment analysis.
In the sentiment attitude extraction task, the aim is to identify <> -- sentiment relations between entities mentioned in text. In this paper, we provide a study on attention-based context encoders in the sentiment attitude extraction task. For this task, we adapt attentive context encoders of two types: (1) feature-based; (2) self-based. In our study, we utilize the corpus of Russian analytical texts RuSentRel and automatically constructed news collection RuAttitudes for enriching the training set. We consider the problem of attitude extraction as two-class (positive, negative) and three-class (positive, negative, neutral) classification tasks for whole documents. Our experiments with the RuSentRel corpus show that the three-class classification models, which employ the RuAttitudes corpus for training, result in 10% increase and extra 3% by F1, when model architectures include the attention mechanism. We also provide the analysis of attention weight distributions in dependence on the term type.
With the proliferation of its applications in various industries, sentiment analysis by using publicly available web data has become an active research area in text classification during these years. It is argued by researchers that semi-supervised learning is an effective approach to this problem since it is capable to mitigate the manual labeling effort which is usually expensive and time-consuming. However, there was a long-term debate on the effectiveness of unlabeled data in text classification. This was partially caused by the fact that many assumptions in theoretic analysis often do not hold in practice. We argue that this problem may be further understood by adding an additional dimension in the experiment. This allows us to address this problem in the perspective of bias and variance in a broader view. We show that the well-known performance degradation issue caused by unlabeled data can be reproduced as a subset of the whole scenario. We argue that if the bias-variance trade-off is to be better balanced by a more effective feature selection method unlabeled data is very likely to boost the classification performance. We then propose a feature selection framework in which labeled and unlabeled training samples are both considered. We discuss its potential in achieving such a balance. Besides, the application in financial sentiment analysis is chosen because it not only exemplifies an important application, the data possesses better illustrative power as well. The implications of this study in text classification and financial sentiment analysis are both discussed.
Lexicon based sentiment analysis usually relies on the identification of various words to which a numerical value corresponding to sentiment can be assigned. In principle, classifiers can be obtained from these algorithms by comparison with human annotation, which is considered the gold standard. In practise this is difficult in languages such as Portuguese where there is a paucity of human annotated texts. Thus in order to compare algorithms, a next best step is to directly compare different algorithms with each other without referring to human annotation. In this paper we develop methods for a statistical comparison of algorithms which does not rely on human annotation or on known class labels. We will motivate the use of marginal homogeneity tests, as well as log linear models within the framework of maximum likelihood estimation We will also show how some uncertainties present in lexicon based sentiment analysis may be similar to those which occur in human annotated tweets. We will also show how the variability in the output of different algorithms is lexicon dependent, and quantify this variability in the output within the framework of log linear models.
Twitter customer service interactions have recently emerged as an effective platform to respond and engage with customers. In this work, we explore the role of negation in customer service interactions, particularly applied to sentiment analysis. We define rules to identify true negation cues and scope more suited to conversational data than existing general review data. Using semantic knowledge and syntactic structure from constituency parse trees, we propose an algorithm for scope detection that performs comparable to state of the art BiLSTM. We further investigate the results of negation scope detection for the sentiment prediction task on customer service conversation data using both a traditional SVM and a Neural Network. We propose an antonym dictionary based method for negation applied to a CNN-LSTM combination model for sentiment analysis. Experimental results show that the antonym-based method outperforms the previous lexicon-based and neural network methods.