When performing Polarity Detection for different words in a sentence, we need to look at the words around to understand the sentiment. Massively pretrained language models like BERT can encode not only just the words in a document but also the context around the words along with them. This begs the questions, "Does a pretrain language model also automatically encode sentiment information about each word?" and "Can it be used to infer polarity towards different aspects?". In this work we try to answer this question by showing that training a comparison of a contextual embedding from BERT and a generic word embedding can be used to infer sentiment. We also show that if we finetune a subset of weights the model built on comparison of BERT and generic word embedding, it can get state of the art results for Polarity Detection in Aspect Based Sentiment Classification datasets.
Aspect-category sentiment analysis (ACSA) aims to predict sentiment polarities of sentences with respect to given aspect categories. To detect the sentiment toward a particular aspect category in a sentence, most previous methods first generate an aspect category-specific sentence representation for the aspect category, then predict the sentiment polarity based on the representation. These methods ignore the fact that the sentiment of an aspect category mentioned in a sentence is an aggregation of the sentiments of the words indicating the aspect category in the sentence, which leads to suboptimal performance. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Instance Multi-Label Learning Network for Aspect-Category sentiment analysis (AC-MIMLLN), which treats sentences as bags, words as instances, and the words indicating an aspect category as the key instances of the aspect category. Given a sentence and the aspect categories mentioned in the sentence, AC-MIMLLN first predicts the sentiments of the instances, then finds the key instances for the aspect categories, finally obtains the sentiments of the sentence toward the aspect categories by aggregating the key instance sentiments. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of AC-MIMLLN.
This project addresses the problem of sentiment analysis in twitter; that is classifying tweets according to the sentiment expressed in them: positive, negative or neutral. Twitter is an online micro-blogging and social-networking platform which allows users to write short status updates of maximum length 140 characters. It is a rapidly expanding service with over 200 million registered users - out of which 100 million are active users and half of them log on twitter on a daily basis - generating nearly 250 million tweets per day. Due to this large amount of usage we hope to achieve a reflection of public sentiment by analysing the sentiments expressed in the tweets. Analysing the public sentiment is important for many applications such as firms trying to find out the response of their products in the market, predicting political elections and predicting socioeconomic phenomena like stock exchange. The aim of this project is to develop a functional classifier for accurate and automatic sentiment classification of an unknown tweet stream.
Emoticons (e.g., :) and :( ) have been widely used in sentiment analysis and other NLP tasks as features to ma- chine learning algorithms or as entries of sentiment lexicons. In this paper, we argue that while emoticons are strong and common signals of sentiment expression on social media the relationship between emoticons and sentiment polarity are not always clear. Thus, any algorithm that deals with sentiment polarity should take emoticons into account but extreme cau- tion should be exercised in which emoticons to depend on. First, to demonstrate the prevalence of emoticons on social media, we analyzed the frequency of emoticons in a large re- cent Twitter data set. Then we carried out four analyses to examine the relationship between emoticons and sentiment polarity as well as the contexts in which emoticons are used. The first analysis surveyed a group of participants for their perceived sentiment polarity of the most frequent emoticons. The second analysis examined clustering of words and emoti- cons to better understand the meaning conveyed by the emoti- cons. The third analysis compared the sentiment polarity of microblog posts before and after emoticons were removed from the text. The last analysis tested the hypothesis that removing emoticons from text hurts sentiment classification by training two machine learning models with and without emoticons in the text respectively. The results confirms the arguments that: 1) a few emoticons are strong and reliable signals of sentiment polarity and one should take advantage of them in any senti- ment analysis; 2) a large group of the emoticons conveys com- plicated sentiment hence they should be treated with extreme caution.
Target-based sentiment analysis or aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) refers to addressing various sentiment analysis tasks at a fine-grained level, which includes but is not limited to aspect extraction, aspect sentiment classification, and opinion extraction. There exist many solvers for the above individual subtasks or a combination of two subtasks, which can work together to tell a complete story, i.e. the discussed aspect, the sentiment on it, and the cause of the sentiment. However, no previous ABSA research tried to provide a complete solution in one shot. In this paper, we introduce a sentiment triplet extraction task. Particularly, a sentiment triplet (What, How, Why) consists of the aspect being discussed, the sentiment polarity on it, and the opinions causing such a sentiment. For sentence, one triplet from "Waiters are very friendly and the pasta is simply average" could be (`Waiters', positive, `friendly'). We propose a two-stage framework to address this task. The first stage predicts what, how and why in a unified model, and then the second stage pairs up the predicted what's and why's from the same input sentence so as to output triplets. In the experiments, our framework has set a benchmark performance in this novel triplet extraction task. Meanwhile, our framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods (with modifications to fit in the setting) and the strongest sequence taggers on several benchmark datasets.
Sentiment analysis is a highly subjective and challenging task. Its complexity further increases when applied to the Arabic language, mainly because of the large variety of dialects that are unstandardized and widely used in the Web, especially in social media. While many datasets have been released to train sentiment classifiers in Arabic, most of these datasets contain shallow annotation, only marking the sentiment of the text unit, as a word, a sentence or a document. In this paper, we present the Arabic Sentiment Twitter Dataset for the Levantine dialect (ArSenTD-LEV). Based on findings from analyzing tweets from the Levant region, we created a dataset of 4,000 tweets with the following annotations: the overall sentiment of the tweet, the target to which the sentiment was expressed, how the sentiment was expressed, and the topic of the tweet. Results confirm the importance of these annotations at improving the performance of a baseline sentiment classifier. They also confirm the gap of training in a certain domain, and testing in another domain.
This paper describes our deep learning-based approach to sentiment analysis in Twitter as part of SemEval-2016 Task 4. We use a convolutional neural network to determine sentiment and participate in all subtasks, i.e. two-point, three-point, and five-point scale sentiment classification and two-point and five-point scale sentiment quantification. We achieve competitive results for two-point scale sentiment classification and quantification, ranking fifth and a close fourth (third and second by alternative metrics) respectively despite using only pre-trained embeddings that contain no sentiment information. We achieve good performance on three-point scale sentiment classification, ranking eighth out of 35, while performing poorly on five-point scale sentiment classification and quantification. An error analysis reveals that this is due to low expressiveness of the model to capture negative sentiment as well as an inability to take into account ordinal information. We propose improvements in order to address these and other issues.
Sentiment analysis as a sub-field of natural language processing has received increased attention in the past decade enabling organisations to more effectively manage their reputation through online media monitoring. Many drivers impact reputation, however, this thesis focuses only the aspect of financial performance and explores the gap with regards to financial sentiment analysis in a South African context. Results showed that pre-trained sentiment analysers are least effective for this task and that traditional lexicon-based and machine learning approaches are best suited to predict financial sentiment of news articles. The evaluated methods produced accuracies of 84\%-94\%. The predicted sentiments correlated quite well with share price and highlighted the potential use of sentiment as an indicator of financial performance. A main contribution of the study was updating an existing sentiment dictionary for financial sentiment analysis. Model generalisation was less acceptable due to the limited amount of training data used. Future work includes expanding the data set to improve general usability and contribute to an open-source financial sentiment analyser for South African data.
The fusion of public sentiment data in the form of text with stock price prediction is a topic of increasing interest within the financial community. However, the research literature seldom explores the application of investor sentiment in the Portfolio Selection problem. This paper aims to unpack and develop an enhanced understanding of the sentiment aware portfolio selection problem. To this end, the study uses a Semantic Attention Model to predict sentiment towards an asset. We select the optimal portfolio through a sentiment-aware Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network for price prediction and a mean-variance strategy. Our sentiment portfolio strategies achieved on average a significant increase in revenue above the non-sentiment aware models. However, the results show that our strategy does not outperform traditional portfolio allocation strategies from a stability perspective. We argue that an improved fusion of sentiment prediction with a combination of price prediction and portfolio optimization leads to an enhanced portfolio selection strategy.