Sentiment analysis as a field has come a long way since it was first introduced as a task nearly 20 years ago. It has widespread commercial applications in various domains like marketing, risk management, market research, and politics, to name a few. Given its saturation in specific subtasks -- such as sentiment polarity classification -- and datasets, there is an underlying perception that this field has reached its maturity. In this article, we discuss this perception by pointing out the shortcomings and under-explored, yet key aspects of this field that are necessary to attain true sentiment understanding. We analyze the significant leaps responsible for its current relevance. Further, we attempt to chart a possible course for this field that covers many overlooked and unanswered questions.
Sentiment Analysis (SA) is a major field of study in natural language processing, computational linguistics and information retrieval. Interest in SA has been constantly growing in both academia and industry over the recent years. Moreover, there is an increasing need for generating appropriate resources and datasets in particular for low resource languages including Persian. These datasets play an important role in designing and developing appropriate opinion mining platforms using supervised, semi-supervised or unsupervised methods. In this paper, we outline the entire process of developing a manually annotated sentiment corpus, SentiPers, which covers formal and informal written contemporary Persian. To the best of our knowledge, SentiPers is a unique sentiment corpus with such a rich annotation in three different levels including document-level, sentence-level, and entity/aspect-level for Persian. The corpus contains more than 26000 sentences of users opinions from digital product domain and benefits from special characteristics such as quantifying the positiveness or negativity of an opinion through assigning a number within a specific range to any given sentence. Furthermore, we present statistics on various components of our corpus as well as studying the inter-annotator agreement among the annotators. Finally, some of the challenges that we faced during the annotation process will be discussed as well.
In this paper we introduce score embedding, a neural network based model to learn interpretable vector representations for words. Score embedding is a supervised method that takes advantage of the labeled training data and the neural network architecture to learn interpretable representations for words. Health care has been a controversial issue between political parties in the United States. In this paper we use the discussions on Twitter regarding different issues of affordable care act to identify the public opinion about the existing health care plans using the proposed score embedding. Our results indicate our approach effectively incorporates the sentiment information and outperforms or is at least comparable to the state-of-the-art methods and the negative sentiment towards "TrumpCare" was consistently greater than neutral and positive sentiment over time.
This work investigates segmentation approaches for sentiment analysis on informal short texts in Turkish. The two building blocks of the proposed work are segmentation and deep neural network model. Segmentation focuses on preprocessing of text with different methods. These methods are grouped in four: morphological, sub-word, tokenization, and hybrid approaches. We analyzed several variants for each of these four methods. The second stage focuses on evaluation of the neural model for sentiment analysis. The performance of each segmentation method is evaluated under Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) model proposed in the literature for sentiment classification.
We analyze the performance of different sentiment classification models on syntactically complex inputs like A-but-B sentences. The first contribution of this analysis addresses reproducible research: to meaningfully compare different models, their accuracies must be averaged over far more random seeds than what has traditionally been reported. With proper averaging in place, we notice that the distillation model described in arXiv:1603.06318v4 [cs.LG], which incorporates explicit logic rules for sentiment classification, is ineffective. In contrast, using contextualized ELMo embeddings (arXiv:1802.05365v2 [cs.CL]) instead of logic rules yields significantly better performance. Additionally, we provide analysis and visualizations that demonstrate ELMo's ability to implicitly learn logic rules. Finally, a crowdsourced analysis reveals how ELMo outperforms baseline models even on sentences with ambiguous sentiment labels.
Social media has revolutionized human communication and styles of interaction. Due to its easiness and effective medium, people share and exchange information, carry out discussion on various events, and express their opinions. For effective policy making and understanding the response of a community on different events, we need to monitor and analyze the social media. In social media, there are some users who are more influential, for example, a famous politician may have more influence than a common person. These influential users belong to specific communities. The main object of this research is to know the sentiments of a specific community on various events. For detecting the event based sentiments of a community we propose a generic framework. Our framework identifies the users of a specific community on twitter. After identifying the users of a community, we fetch their tweets and identify tweets belonging to specific events. The event based tweets are pre-processed. Pre-processed tweets are then analyzed for detecting sentiments of a community for specific events. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirms the effectiveness and usefulness of our proposed framework.
We propose a novel approach to multimodal sentiment analysis using deep neural networks combining visual analysis and natural language processing. Our goal is different than the standard sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a sentence expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to infer the latent emotional state of the user. Thus, we focus on predicting the emotion word tags attached by users to their Tumblr posts, treating these as "self-reported emotions." We demonstrate that our multimodal model combining both text and image features outperforms separate models based solely on either images or text. Our model's results are interpretable, automatically yielding sensible word lists associated with emotions. We explore the structure of emotions implied by our model and compare it to what has been posited in the psychology literature, and validate our model on a set of images that have been used in psychology studies. Finally, our work also provides a useful tool for the growing academic study of images - both photographs and memes - on social networks.
Expressing in language is subjective. Everyone has a different style of reading and writing, apparently it all boil downs to the way their mind understands things (in a specific format). Language style transfer is a way to preserve the meaning of a text and change the way it is expressed. Progress in language style transfer is lagged behind other domains, such as computer vision, mainly because of the lack of parallel data, use cases, and reliable evaluation metrics. In response to the challenge of lacking parallel data, we explore learning style transfer from non-parallel data. We propose a model combining seq2seq, autoencoders, and adversarial loss to achieve this goal. The key idea behind the proposed models is to learn separate content representations and style representations using adversarial networks. Considering the problem of evaluating style transfer tasks, we frame the problem as sentiment transfer and evaluation using a sentiment classifier to calculate how many sentiments was the model able to transfer. We report our results on several kinds of models.
Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) aims to identify the aspect terms, their corresponding sentiment polarities, and the opinion terms. There exist seven subtasks in ABSA. Most studies only focus on the subsets of these subtasks, which leads to various complicated ABSA models while hard to solve these subtasks in a unified framework. In this paper, we redefine every subtask target as a sequence mixed by pointer indexes and sentiment class indexes, which converts all ABSA subtasks into a unified generative formulation. Based on the unified formulation, we exploit the pre-training sequence-to-sequence model BART to solve all ABSA subtasks in an end-to-end framework. Extensive experiments on four ABSA datasets for seven subtasks demonstrate that our framework achieves substantial performance gain and provides a real unified end-to-end solution for the whole ABSA subtasks, which could benefit multiple tasks.
This paper presents our strategy to tackle the EACL WANLP-2021 Shared Task 2: Sarcasm and Sentiment Detection. One of the subtasks aims at developing a system that identifies whether a given Arabic tweet is sarcastic in nature or not, while the other aims to identify the sentiment of the Arabic tweet. We approach the task in two steps. The first step involves pre processing the provided ArSarcasm-v2 dataset by performing insertions, deletions and segmentation operations on various parts of the text. The second step involves experimenting with multiple variants of two transformer based models, AraELECTRA and AraBERT. Our final approach was ranked seventh and fourth in the Sarcasm and Sentiment Detection subtasks respectively.