The challenge of automatic detection of toxic comments online has been the subject of a lot of research recently, but the focus has been mostly on detecting it in individual messages after they have been posted. Some authors have tried to predict if a conversation will derail into toxicity using the features of the first few messages. In this paper, we combine that approach with previous work on toxicity detection using sentiment information, and show how the sentiments expressed in the first messages of a conversation can help predict upcoming toxicity. Our results show that adding sentiment features does help improve the accuracy of toxicity prediction, and also allow us to make important observations on the general task of preemptive toxicity detection.
Documents are composed of smaller pieces - paragraphs, sentences, and tokens - that have complex relationships between one another. Sentiment classification models that take into account the structure inherent in these documents have a theoretical advantage over those that do not. At the same time, transfer learning models based on language model pretraining have shown promise for document classification. However, these two paradigms have not been systematically compared and it is not clear under which circumstances one approach is better than the other. In this work we empirically compare hierarchical models and transfer learning for document-level sentiment classification. We show that non-trivial hierarchical models outperform previous baselines and transfer learning on document-level sentiment classification in five languages.
Identifying and understanding underlying sentiment or emotions in text is a key component of multiple natural language processing applications. While simple polarity sentiment analysis is a well-studied subject, fewer advances have been made in identifying more complex, finer-grained emotions using only textual data. In this paper, we present a Transformer-based model with a Fusion of Adapter layers which leverages knowledge from more simple sentiment analysis tasks to improve the emotion detection task on large scale dataset, such as CMU-MOSEI, using the textual modality only. Results show that our proposed method is competitive with other approaches. We obtained state-of-the-art results for emotion recognition on CMU-MOSEI even while using only the textual modality.
Aspect based sentiment analysis, predicting sentiment polarity of given aspects, has drawn extensive attention. Previous attention-based models emphasize using aspect semantics to help extract opinion features for classification. However, these works are either not able to capture opinion spans as a whole, or not able to capture variable-length opinion spans. In this paper, we present a neat and effective structured attention model by aggregating multiple linear-chain CRFs. Such a design allows the model to extract aspect-specific opinion spans and then evaluate sentiment polarity by exploiting the extracted opinion features. The experimental results on four datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, and our analysis demonstrates that our model can capture aspect-specific opinion spans.
The rapid growth in data on the internet requires a data mining process to reach a decision to support insight. The Persian language has strong potential for deep research in any aspect of natural language processing, especially sentimental analysis approach. Thousands of websites and blogs updates and modifies by Persian users around the world that contains millions of Persian context. This range of application requires a comprehensive structured framework to extract beneficial information for helping enterprises to enhance their business and initiate a customer-centric management process by producing effective recommender systems. Sentimental analysis is an intelligent approach for extracting useful information from huge amounts of data to help an enterprise for smart management process. In this road, machine learning and deep learning techniques will become very helpful but there is the number of challenges which are face to them. This paper tried to present and assert the most important challenges of sentimental analysis in the Persian language. This language is an Indo-European language which spoken by over 110 million people around the world and is an official language in Iran, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan. Its also widely used in Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Turkish by order.
Word embeddings or distributed representations of words are being used in various applications like machine translation, sentiment analysis, topic identification etc. Quality of word embeddings and performance of their applications depends on several factors like training method, corpus size and relevance etc. In this study we compare performance of a dozen of pretrained word embedding models on lyrics sentiment analysis and movie review polarity tasks. According to our results, Twitter Tweets is the best on lyrics sentiment analysis, whereas Google News and Common Crawl are the top performers on movie polarity analysis. Glove trained models slightly outrun those trained with Skipgram. Also, factors like topic relevance and size of corpus significantly impact the quality of the models. When medium or large-sized text sets are available, obtaining word embeddings from same training dataset is usually the best choice.
Internet and the proliferation of smart mobile devices have changed the way information is created, shared, and spreads, e.g., microblogs such as Twitter, weblogs such as LiveJournal, social networks such as Facebook, and instant messengers such as Skype and WhatsApp are now commonly used to share thoughts and opinions about anything in the surrounding world. This has resulted in the proliferation of social media content, thus creating new opportunities to study public opinion at a scale that was never possible before. Naturally, this abundance of data has quickly attracted business and research interest from various fields including marketing, political science, and social studies, among many others, which are interested in questions like these: Do people like the new Apple Watch? Do Americans support ObamaCare? How do Scottish feel about the Brexit? Answering these questions requires studying the sentiment of opinions people express in social media, which has given rise to the fast growth of the field of sentiment analysis in social media, with Twitter being especially popular for research due to its scale, representativeness, variety of topics discussed, as well as ease of public access to its messages. Here we present an overview of work on sentiment analysis on Twitter.
While the general task of textual sentiment classification has been widely studied, much less research looks specifically at sentiment between a specified source and target. To tackle this problem, we experimented with a state-of-the-art relation extraction model. Surprisingly, we found that despite reasonable performance, the model's attention was often systematically misaligned with the words that contribute to sentiment. Thus, we directly trained the model's attention with human rationales and improved our model performance by a robust 4~8 points on all tasks we defined on our data sets. We also present a rigorous analysis of the model's attention, both trained and untrained, using novel and intuitive metrics. Our results show that untrained attention does not provide faithful explanations; however, trained attention with concisely annotated human rationales not only increases performance, but also brings faithful explanations. Encouragingly, a small amount of annotated human rationales suffice to correct the attention in our task.
Domain adaptation is important in sentiment analysis as sentiment-indicating words vary between domains. Recently, multi-domain adaptation has become more pervasive, but existing approaches train on all available source domains including dissimilar ones. However, the selection of appropriate training data is as important as the choice of algorithm. We undertake -- to our knowledge for the first time -- an extensive study of domain similarity metrics in the context of sentiment analysis and propose novel representations, metrics, and a new scope for data selection. We evaluate the proposed methods on two large-scale multi-domain adaptation settings on tweets and reviews and demonstrate that they consistently outperform strong random and balanced baselines, while our proposed selection strategy outperforms instance-level selection and yields the best score on a large reviews corpus.
This work extends the set of works which deal with the popular problem of sentiment analysis in Twitter. It investigates the most popular document ("tweet") representation methods which feed sentiment evaluation mechanisms. In particular, we study the bag-of-words, n-grams and n-gram graphs approaches and for each of them we evaluate the performance of a lexicon-based and 7 learning-based classification algorithms (namely SVM, Na\"ive Bayesian Networks, Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptrons, Best-First Trees, Functional Trees and C4.5) as well as their combinations, using a set of 4451 manually annotated tweets. The results demonstrate the superiority of learning-based methods and in particular of n-gram graphs approaches for predicting the sentiment of tweets. They also show that the combinatory approach has impressive effects on n-grams, raising the confidence up to 83.15% on the 5-Grams, using majority vote and a balanced dataset (equal number of positive, negative and neutral tweets for training). In the n-gram graph cases the improvement was small to none, reaching 94.52% on the 4-gram graphs, using Orthodromic distance and a threshold of 0.001.