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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Sentiment analysis with genetically evolved Gaussian kernels

Apr 01, 2019
I. Roman, A. Mendiburu, R. Santana, J. A. Lozano

Sentiment analysis consists of evaluating opinions or statements from the analysis of text. Among the methods used to estimate the degree in which a text expresses a given sentiment, are those based on Gaussian Processes. However, traditional Gaussian Processes methods use a predefined kernel with hyperparameters that can be tuned but whose structure can not be adapted. In this paper, we propose the application of Genetic Programming for evolving Gaussian Process kernels that are more precise for sentiment analysis. We use use a very flexible representation of kernels combined with a multi-objective approach that simultaneously considers two quality metrics and the computational time spent by the kernels. Our results show that the algorithm can outperform Gaussian Processes with traditional kernels for some of the sentiment analysis tasks considered.


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Effect of Text Processing Steps on Twitter Sentiment Classification using Word Embedding

Jul 25, 2020
Manar D. Samad, Nalin D. Khounviengxay, Megan A. Witherow

Processing of raw text is the crucial first step in text classification and sentiment analysis. However, text processing steps are often performed using off-the-shelf routines and pre-built word dictionaries without optimizing for domain, application, and context. This paper investigates the effect of seven text processing scenarios on a particular text domain (Twitter) and application (sentiment classification). Skip gram-based word embeddings are developed to include Twitter colloquial words, emojis, and hashtag keywords that are often removed for being unavailable in conventional literature corpora. Our experiments reveal negative effects on sentiment classification of two common text processing steps: 1) stop word removal and 2) averaging of word vectors to represent individual tweets. New effective steps for 1) including non-ASCII emoji characters, 2) measuring word importance from word embedding, 3) aggregating word vectors into a tweet embedding, and 4) developing linearly separable feature space have been proposed to optimize the sentiment classification pipeline. The best combination of text processing steps yields the highest average area under the curve (AUC) of 88.4 (+/-0.4) in classifying 14,640 tweets with three sentiment labels. Word selection from context-driven word embedding reveals that only the ten most important words in Tweets cumulatively yield over 98% of the maximum accuracy. Results demonstrate a means for data-driven selection of important words in tweet classification as opposed to using pre-built word dictionaries. The proposed tweet embedding is robust to and alleviates the need for several text processing steps.

* 14 pages, 3 figures, 7 tables 

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Survey on Visual Sentiment Analysis

May 18, 2020
Alessandro Ortis, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Sebastiano Battiato

Visual Sentiment Analysis aims to understand how images affect people, in terms of evoked emotions. Although this field is rather new, a broad range of techniques have been developed for various data sources and problems, resulting in a large body of research. This paper reviews pertinent publications and tries to present an exhaustive overview of the field. After a description of the task and the related applications, the subject is tackled under different main headings. The paper also describes principles of design of general Visual Sentiment Analysis systems from three main points of view: emotional models, dataset definition, feature design. A formalization of the problem is discussed, considering different levels of granularity, as well as the components that can affect the sentiment toward an image in different ways. To this aim, this paper considers a structured formalization of the problem which is usually used for the analysis of text, and discusses it's suitability in the context of Visual Sentiment Analysis. The paper also includes a description of new challenges, the evaluation from the viewpoint of progress toward more sophisticated systems and related practical applications, as well as a summary of the insights resulting from this study.

* This paper is a postprint of a paper accepted by IET Image Processing and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. When the final version is published, the copy of record will be available at the IET Digital Library 

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Semantic and sentiment analysis of selected Bhagavad Gita translations using BERT-based language framework

Jan 09, 2022
Rohitash Chandra, Venkatesh Kulkarni

It is well known that translations of songs and poems not only breaks rhythm and rhyming patterns, but also results in loss of semantic information. The Bhagavad Gita is an ancient Hindu philosophical text originally written in Sanskrit that features a conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna prior to the Mahabharata war. The Bhagavad Gita is also one of the key sacred texts in Hinduism and known as the forefront of the Vedic corpus of Hinduism. In the last two centuries, there has been a lot of interest in Hindu philosophy by western scholars and hence the Bhagavad Gita has been translated in a number of languages. However, there is not much work that validates the quality of the English translations. Recent progress of language models powered by deep learning has enabled not only translations but better understanding of language and texts with semantic and sentiment analysis. Our work is motivated by the recent progress of language models powered by deep learning methods. In this paper, we compare selected translations (mostly from Sanskrit to English) of the Bhagavad Gita using semantic and sentiment analyses. We use hand-labelled sentiment dataset for tuning state-of-art deep learning-based language model known as \textit{bidirectional encoder representations from transformers} (BERT). We use novel sentence embedding models to provide semantic analysis for selected chapters and verses across translations. Finally, we use the aforementioned models for sentiment and semantic analyses and provide visualisation of results. Our results show that although the style and vocabulary in the respective Bhagavad Gita translations vary widely, the sentiment analysis and semantic similarity shows that the message conveyed are mostly similar across the translations.


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SemEval-2017 Task 4: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter

Dec 02, 2019
Sara Rosenthal, Noura Farra, Preslav Nakov

This paper describes the fifth year of the Sentiment Analysis in Twitter task. SemEval-2017 Task 4 continues with a rerun of the subtasks of SemEval-2016 Task 4, which include identifying the overall sentiment of the tweet, sentiment towards a topic with classification on a two-point and on a five-point ordinal scale, and quantification of the distribution of sentiment towards a topic across a number of tweets: again on a two-point and on a five-point ordinal scale. Compared to 2016, we made two changes: (i) we introduced a new language, Arabic, for all subtasks, and (ii)~we made available information from the profiles of the Twitter users who posted the target tweets. The task continues to be very popular, with a total of 48 teams participating this year.

* sentiment analysis, Twitter, classification, quantification, ranking, English, Arabic 

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A Survey on Visual Sentiment Analysis

Apr 24, 2020
Alessandro Ortis, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Sebastiano Battiato

Visual Sentiment Analysis aims to understand how images affect people, in terms of evoked emotions. Although this field is rather new, over the last years, a broad range of techniques have been developed for various data sources and problems, resulting in a large body of research. This paper reviews pertinent publications and tries to present an exhaustive e view of the field. After a description of the task and the related applications, the subject is tackled under different main headings. The paper also describes principles of design of general Visual Sentiment Analysis systems from three main points of view: emotional models, dataset definition, feature design. A formalization of the problem is discussed, considering different levels of granularity, as well as the components that can affect the sentiment toward an image in different ways. To this aim, this paper considers a structured formalization of the problem which is usually used for the analysis of text, and discusses it's suitability in the context of Visual Sentiment Analysis. The paper also includes a description of new challenges, the evaluation from the viewpoint of progress toward more sophisticated systems and related practical applications, as well as a summary of the insights resulting from this study.

* This paper is a preprint of a paper accepted by IET Image Processing and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. When the final version is published, the copy of record will be available at the IET Digital Library 

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NRC-Canada: Building the State-of-the-Art in Sentiment Analysis of Tweets

Aug 28, 2013
Saif M. Mohammad, Svetlana Kiritchenko, Xiaodan Zhu

In this paper, we describe how we created two state-of-the-art SVM classifiers, one to detect the sentiment of messages such as tweets and SMS (message-level task) and one to detect the sentiment of a term within a submissions stood first in both tasks on tweets, obtaining an F-score of 69.02 in the message-level task and 88.93 in the term-level task. We implemented a variety of surface-form, semantic, and sentiment features. with sentiment-word hashtags, and one from tweets with emoticons. In the message-level task, the lexicon-based features provided a gain of 5 F-score points over all others. Both of our systems can be replicated us available resources.

* In Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on Semantic Evaluation Exercises (SemEval-2013), June 2013, Atlanta, USA 

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S-APIR: News-based Business Sentiment Index

Mar 06, 2020
Kazuhiro Seki, Yusuke Ikuta

This paper describes our work on developing a new business sentiment index using daily newspaper articles. We adopt a recurrent neural network (RNN) with Gated Recurrent Units to predict the business sentiment of a given text. An RNN is initially trained on Economy Watchers Survey and then fine-tuned on news texts for domain adaptation. Also, a one-class support vector machine is applied to filter out texts deemed irrelevant to business sentiment. Moreover, we propose a simple approach to temporally analyzing how much and when any given factor influences the predicted business sentiment. The validity and utility of the proposed approaches are empirically demonstrated through a series of experiments on Nikkei Newspaper articles published from 2013 to 2018.


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Variational Weakly Supervised Sentiment Analysis with Posterior Regularization

Apr 18, 2021
Ziqian Zeng, Yangqiu Song

Sentiment analysis is an important task in natural language processing (NLP). Most of existing state-of-the-art methods are under the supervised learning paradigm. However, human annotations can be scarce. Thus, we should leverage more weak supervision for sentiment analysis. In this paper, we propose a posterior regularization framework for the variational approach to the weakly supervised sentiment analysis to better control the posterior distribution of the label assignment. The intuition behind the posterior regularization is that if extracted opinion words from two documents are semantically similar, the posterior distributions of two documents should be similar. Our experimental results show that the posterior regularization can improve the original variational approach to the weakly supervised sentiment analysis and the performance is more stable with smaller prediction variance.

* Accepted at EACL 2021. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2008.09394 

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SemEval-2016 Task 4: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter

Dec 03, 2019
Preslav Nakov, Alan Ritter, Sara Rosenthal, Fabrizio Sebastiani, Veselin Stoyanov

This paper discusses the fourth year of the ``Sentiment Analysis in Twitter Task''. SemEval-2016 Task 4 comprises five subtasks, three of which represent a significant departure from previous editions. The first two subtasks are reruns from prior years and ask to predict the overall sentiment, and the sentiment towards a topic in a tweet. The three new subtasks focus on two variants of the basic ``sentiment classification in Twitter'' task. The first variant adopts a five-point scale, which confers an ordinal character to the classification task. The second variant focuses on the correct estimation of the prevalence of each class of interest, a task which has been called quantification in the supervised learning literature. The task continues to be very popular, attracting a total of 43 teams.

* SemEval-2016 
* Sentiment analysis, sentiment towards a topic, quantification, microblog sentiment analysis; Twitter opinion mining. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1912.00741 

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