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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Predicting US State-Level Agricultural Sentiment as a Measure of Food Security with Tweets from Farming Communities

Feb 13, 2019
Jared Dunnmon, Swetava Ganguli, Darren Hau, Brooke Husic

The ability to obtain accurate food security metrics in developing areas where relevant data can be sparse is critically important for policy makers tasked with implementing food aid programs. As a result, a great deal of work has been dedicated to predicting important food security metrics such as annual crop yields using a variety of methods including simulation, remote sensing, weather models, and human expert input. As a complement to existing techniques in crop yield prediction, this work develops neural network models for predicting the sentiment of Twitter feeds from farming communities. Specifically, we investigate the potential of both direct learning on a small dataset of agriculturally-relevant tweets and transfer learning from larger, well-labeled sentiment datasets from other domains (e.g.~politics) to accurately predict agricultural sentiment, which we hope would ultimately serve as a useful crop yield predictor. We find that direct learning from small, relevant datasets outperforms transfer learning from large, fully-labeled datasets, that convolutional neural networks broadly outperform recurrent neural networks on Twitter sentiment classification, and that these models perform substantially less well on ternary sentiment problems characteristic of practical settings than on binary problems often found in the literature.

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Learning to Generate Reviews and Discovering Sentiment

Apr 06, 2017
Alec Radford, Rafal Jozefowicz, Ilya Sutskever

We explore the properties of byte-level recurrent language models. When given sufficient amounts of capacity, training data, and compute time, the representations learned by these models include disentangled features corresponding to high-level concepts. Specifically, we find a single unit which performs sentiment analysis. These representations, learned in an unsupervised manner, achieve state of the art on the binary subset of the Stanford Sentiment Treebank. They are also very data efficient. When using only a handful of labeled examples, our approach matches the performance of strong baselines trained on full datasets. We also demonstrate the sentiment unit has a direct influence on the generative process of the model. Simply fixing its value to be positive or negative generates samples with the corresponding positive or negative sentiment.

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Legal Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining (LSAOM): Assimilating Advances in Autonomous AI Legal Reasoning

Oct 02, 2020
Lance Eliot

An expanding field of substantive interest for the theory of the law and the practice-of-law entails Legal Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining (LSAOM), consisting of two often intertwined phenomena and actions underlying legal discussions and narratives: (1) Sentiment Analysis (SA) for the detection of expressed or implied sentiment about a legal matter within the context of a legal milieu, and (2) Opinion Mining (OM) for the identification and illumination of explicit or implicit opinion accompaniments immersed within legal discourse. Efforts to undertake LSAOM have historically been performed by human hand and cognition, and only thinly aided in more recent times by the use of computer-based approaches. Advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) involving especially Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) are increasingly bolstering how automation can systematically perform either or both of Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining, all of which is being inexorably carried over into engagement within a legal context for improving LSAOM capabilities. This research paper examines the evolving infusion of AI into Legal Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining and proposes an alignment with the Levels of Autonomy (LoA) of AI Legal Reasoning (AILR), plus provides additional insights regarding AI LSAOM in its mechanizations and potential impact to the study of law and the practicing of law.

* 26 pages, 8 figures. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2009.14620 

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Combining Convolution and Recursive Neural Networks for Sentiment Analysis

Jan 27, 2018
Vinh D. Van, Thien Thai, Minh-Quoc Nghiem

This paper addresses the problem of sentence-level sentiment analysis. In recent years, Convolution and Recursive Neural Networks have been proven to be effective network architecture for sentence-level sentiment analysis. Nevertheless, each of them has their own potential drawbacks. For alleviating their weaknesses, we combined Convolution and Recursive Neural Networks into a new network architecture. In addition, we employed transfer learning from a large document-level labeled sentiment dataset to improve the word embedding in our models. The resulting models outperform all recent Convolution and Recursive Neural Networks. Beyond that, our models achieve comparable performance with state-of-the-art systems on Stanford Sentiment Treebank.

* 8 pages, 3 figures, Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Information and Communication Technology. ACM, 2017 

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PASTE: A Tagging-Free Decoding Framework Using Pointer Networks for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction

Oct 10, 2021
Rajdeep Mukherjee, Tapas Nayak, Yash Butala, Sourangshu Bhattacharya, Pawan Goyal

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) deals with extracting opinion triplets, consisting of an opinion target or aspect, its associated sentiment, and the corresponding opinion term/span explaining the rationale behind the sentiment. Existing research efforts are majorly tagging-based. Among the methods taking a sequence tagging approach, some fail to capture the strong interdependence between the three opinion factors, whereas others fall short of identifying triplets with overlapping aspect/opinion spans. A recent grid tagging approach on the other hand fails to capture the span-level semantics while predicting the sentiment between an aspect-opinion pair. Different from these, we present a tagging-free solution for the task, while addressing the limitations of the existing works. We adapt an encoder-decoder architecture with a Pointer Network-based decoding framework that generates an entire opinion triplet at each time step thereby making our solution end-to-end. Interactions between the aspects and opinions are effectively captured by the decoder by considering their entire detected spans while predicting their connecting sentiment. Extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets establish the better efficacy of our proposed approach, especially in the recall, and in predicting multiple and aspect/opinion-overlapped triplets from the same review sentence. We report our results both with and without BERT and also demonstrate the utility of domain-specific BERT post-training for the task.

* Accepted as a Long Paper at EMNLP 2021 (Main Conference); 13 pages; Codes: 

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Transfer-based adaptive tree for multimodal sentiment analysis based on user latent aspects

Jun 27, 2021
Sana Rahmani, Saeid Hosseini, Raziyeh Zall, Mohammad Reza Kangavari, Sara Kamran, Wen Hua

Multimodal sentiment analysis benefits various applications such as human-computer interaction and recommendation systems. It aims to infer the users' bipolar ideas using visual, textual, and acoustic signals. Although researchers affirm the association between cognitive cues and emotional manifestations, most of the current multimodal approaches in sentiment analysis disregard user-specific aspects. To tackle this issue, we devise a novel method to perform multimodal sentiment prediction using cognitive cues, such as personality. Our framework constructs an adaptive tree by hierarchically dividing users and trains the LSTM-based submodels, utilizing an attention-based fusion to transfer cognitive-oriented knowledge within the tree. Subsequently, the framework consumes the conclusive agglomerative knowledge from the adaptive tree to predict final sentiments. We also devise a dynamic dropout method to facilitate data sharing between neighboring nodes, reducing data sparsity. The empirical results on real-world datasets determine that our proposed model for sentiment prediction can surpass trending rivals. Moreover, compared to other ensemble approaches, the proposed transfer-based algorithm can better utilize the latent cognitive cues and foster the prediction outcomes. Based on the given extrinsic and intrinsic analysis results, we note that compared to other theoretical-based techniques, the proposed hierarchical clustering approach can better group the users within the adaptive tree.

* Under Review on IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 

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Sentiment Analysis Using Collaborated Opinion Mining

Jan 12, 2014
Deepali Virmani, Vikrant Malhotra, Ridhi Tyagi

Opinion mining and Sentiment analysis have emerged as a field of study since the widespread of World Wide Web and internet. Opinion refers to extraction of those lines or phrase in the raw and huge data which express an opinion. Sentiment analysis on the other hand identifies the polarity of the opinion being extracted. In this paper we propose the sentiment analysis in collaboration with opinion extraction, summarization, and tracking the records of the students. The paper modifies the existing algorithm in order to obtain the collaborated opinion about the students. The resultant opinion is represented as very high, high, moderate, low and very low. The paper is based on a case study where teachers give their remarks about the students and by applying the proposed sentiment analysis algorithm the opinion is extracted and represented.

* 5 pages, 6 figures 

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Structured Sentiment Analysis as Dependency Graph Parsing

May 30, 2021
Jeremy Barnes, Robin Kurtz, Stephan Oepen, Lilja Øvrelid, Erik Velldal

Structured sentiment analysis attempts to extract full opinion tuples from a text, but over time this task has been subdivided into smaller and smaller sub-tasks, e,g,, target extraction or targeted polarity classification. We argue that this division has become counterproductive and propose a new unified framework to remedy the situation. We cast the structured sentiment problem as dependency graph parsing, where the nodes are spans of sentiment holders, targets and expressions, and the arcs are the relations between them. We perform experiments on five datasets in four languages (English, Norwegian, Basque, and Catalan) and show that this approach leads to strong improvements over state-of-the-art baselines. Our analysis shows that refining the sentiment graphs with syntactic dependency information further improves results.

* Accepted at ACL-IJCNLP 2021 

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Real-Time Prediction of BITCOIN Price using Machine Learning Techniques and Public Sentiment Analysis

Jun 18, 2020
S M Raju, Ali Mohammad Tarif

Bitcoin is the first digital decentralized cryptocurrency that has shown a significant increase in market capitalization in recent years. The objective of this paper is to determine the predictable price direction of Bitcoin in USD by machine learning techniques and sentiment analysis. Twitter and Reddit have attracted a great deal of attention from researchers to study public sentiment. We have applied sentiment analysis and supervised machine learning principles to the extracted tweets from Twitter and Reddit posts, and we analyze the correlation between bitcoin price movements and sentiments in tweets. We explored several algorithms of machine learning using supervised learning to develop a prediction model and provide informative analysis of future market prices. Due to the difficulty of evaluating the exact nature of a Time Series(ARIMA) model, it is often very difficult to produce appropriate forecasts. Then we continue to implement Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) with long short-term memory cells (LSTM). Thus, we analyzed the time series model prediction of bitcoin prices with greater efficiency using long short-term memory (LSTM) techniques and compared the predictability of bitcoin price and sentiment analysis of bitcoin tweets to the standard method (ARIMA). The RMSE (Root-mean-square error) of LSTM are 198.448 (single feature) and 197.515 (multi-feature) whereas the ARIMA model RMSE is 209.263 which shows that LSTM with multi feature shows the more accurate result.

* 14 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables 

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Sentiment analysis in tweets: an assessment study from classical to modern text representation models

May 29, 2021
Sérgio Barreto, Ricardo Moura, Jonnathan Carvalho, Aline Paes, Alexandre Plastino

With the growth of social medias, such as Twitter, plenty of user-generated data emerge daily. The short texts published on Twitter -- the tweets -- have earned significant attention as a rich source of information to guide many decision-making processes. However, their inherent characteristics, such as the informal, and noisy linguistic style, remain challenging to many natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including sentiment analysis. Sentiment classification is tackled mainly by machine learning-based classifiers. The literature has adopted word representations from distinct natures to transform tweets to vector-based inputs to feed sentiment classifiers. The representations come from simple count-based methods, such as bag-of-words, to more sophisticated ones, such as BERTweet, built upon the trendy BERT architecture. Nevertheless, most studies mainly focus on evaluating those models using only a small number of datasets. Despite the progress made in recent years in language modelling, there is still a gap regarding a robust evaluation of induced embeddings applied to sentiment analysis on tweets. Furthermore, while fine-tuning the model from downstream tasks is prominent nowadays, less attention has been given to adjustments based on the specific linguistic style of the data. In this context, this study fulfils an assessment of existing language models in distinguishing the sentiment expressed in tweets by using a rich collection of 22 datasets from distinct domains and five classification algorithms. The evaluation includes static and contextualized representations. Contexts are assembled from Transformer-based autoencoder models that are also fine-tuned based on the masked language model task, using a plethora of strategies.

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