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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Morphological Skip-Gram: Using morphological knowledge to improve word representation

Jul 21, 2020
Flávio Santos, Hendrik Macedo, Thiago Bispo, Cleber Zanchettin

Natural language processing models have attracted much interest in the deep learning community. This branch of study is composed of some applications such as machine translation, sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, question and answer, and others. Word embeddings are continuous word representations, they are an essential module for those applications and are generally used as input word representation to the deep learning models. Word2Vec and GloVe are two popular methods to learn word embeddings. They achieve good word representations, however, they learn representations with limited information because they ignore the morphological information of the words and consider only one representation vector for each word. This approach implies that Word2Vec and GloVe are unaware of the word inner structure. To mitigate this problem, the FastText model represents each word as a bag of characters n-grams. Hence, each n-gram has a continuous vector representation, and the final word representation is the sum of its characters n-grams vectors. Nevertheless, the use of all n-grams character of a word is a poor approach since some n-grams have no semantic relation with their words and increase the amount of potentially useless information. This approach also increases the training phase time. In this work, we propose a new method for training word embeddings, and its goal is to replace the FastText bag of character n-grams for a bag of word morphemes through the morphological analysis of the word. Thus, words with similar context and morphemes are represented by vectors close to each other. To evaluate our new approach, we performed intrinsic evaluations considering 15 different tasks, and the results show a competitive performance compared to FastText.

* 11 pages 
  
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Deep Learning based Topic Analysis on Financial Emerging Event Tweets

Aug 03, 2020
Shaan Aryaman, Nguwi Yok Yen

Financial analyses of stock markets rely heavily on quantitative approaches in an attempt to predict subsequent or market movements based on historical prices and other measurable metrics. These quantitative analyses might have missed out on un-quantifiable aspects like sentiment and speculation that also impact the market. Analyzing vast amounts of qualitative text data to understand public opinion on social media platform is one approach to address this gap. This work carried out topic analysis on 28264 financial tweets [1] via clustering to discover emerging events in the stock market. Three main topics were discovered to be discussed frequently within the period. First, the financial ratio EPS is a measure that has been discussed frequently by investors. Secondly, short selling of shares were discussed heavily, it was often mentioned together with Morgan Stanley. Thirdly, oil and energy sectors were often discussed together with policy. These tweets were semantically clustered by a method consisting of word2vec algorithm to obtain word embeddings that map words to vectors. Semantic word clusters were then formed. Each tweet was then vectorized using the Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) values of the words it consisted of and based on which clusters its words were in. Tweet vectors were then converted to compressed representations by training a deep-autoencoder. K-means clusters were then formed. This method reduces dimensionality and produces dense vectors, in contrast to the usual Vector Space Model. Topic modelling with Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and top frequent words were used to analyze clusters and reveal emerging events.

  
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Automated Problem Identification: Regression vs Classification via Evolutionary Deep Networks

Jul 03, 2017
Emmanuel Dufourq, Bruce A. Bassett

Regression or classification? This is perhaps the most basic question faced when tackling a new supervised learning problem. We present an Evolutionary Deep Learning (EDL) algorithm that automatically solves this by identifying the question type with high accuracy, along with a proposed deep architecture. Typically, a significant amount of human insight and preparation is required prior to executing machine learning algorithms. For example, when creating deep neural networks, the number of parameters must be selected in advance and furthermore, a lot of these choices are made based upon pre-existing knowledge of the data such as the use of a categorical cross entropy loss function. Humans are able to study a dataset and decide whether it represents a classification or a regression problem, and consequently make decisions which will be applied to the execution of the neural network. We propose the Automated Problem Identification (API) algorithm, which uses an evolutionary algorithm interface to TensorFlow to manipulate a deep neural network to decide if a dataset represents a classification or a regression problem. We test API on 16 different classification, regression and sentiment analysis datasets with up to 10,000 features and up to 17,000 unique target values. API achieves an average accuracy of $96.3\%$ in identifying the problem type without hardcoding any insights about the general characteristics of regression or classification problems. For example, API successfully identifies classification problems even with 1000 target values. Furthermore, the algorithm recommends which loss function to use and also recommends a neural network architecture. Our work is therefore a step towards fully automated machine learning.

* 9 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables 
  
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One Model, Multiple Tasks: Pathways for Natural Language Understanding

Mar 07, 2022
Duyu Tang, Fan Zhang, Yong Dai, Cong Zhou, Shuangzhi Wu, Shuming Shi

This paper presents a Pathways approach to handle many tasks at once. Our approach is general-purpose and sparse. Unlike prevailing single-purpose models that overspecialize at individual tasks and learn from scratch when being extended to new tasks, our approach is general-purpose with the ability of stitching together existing skills to learn new tasks more effectively. Different from traditional dense models that always activate all the model parameters, our approach is sparsely activated: only relevant parts of the model (like pathways through the network) are activated. We take natural language understanding as a case study and define a set of skills like \textit{the skill of understanding the sentiment of text} and \textit{the skill of understanding natural language questions}. These skills can be reused and combined to support many different tasks and situations. We develop our system using Transformer as the backbone. For each skill, we implement skill-specific feed-forward networks, which are activated only if the skill is relevant to the task. An appealing feature of our model is that it not only supports sparsely activated fine-tuning, but also allows us to pretrain skills in the same sparse way with masked language modeling and next sentence prediction. We call this model \textbf{SkillNet}. We have three major findings. First, with only one model checkpoint, SkillNet performs better than task-specific fine-tuning and two multi-task learning baselines (i.e., dense model and Mixture-of-Experts model) on six tasks. Second, sparsely activated pre-training further improves the overall performance. Third, SkillNet significantly outperforms baseline systems when being extended to new tasks.

  
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Explaining the Deep Natural Language Processing by Mining Textual Interpretable Features

Jun 12, 2021
Francesco Ventura, Salvatore Greco, Daniele Apiletti, Tania Cerquitelli

Despite the high accuracy offered by state-of-the-art deep natural-language models (e.g. LSTM, BERT), their application in real-life settings is still widely limited, as they behave like a black-box to the end-user. Hence, explainability is rapidly becoming a fundamental requirement of future-generation data-driven systems based on deep-learning approaches. Several attempts to fulfill the existing gap between accuracy and interpretability have been done. However, robust and specialized xAI (Explainable Artificial Intelligence) solutions tailored to deep natural-language models are still missing. We propose a new framework, named T-EBAnO, which provides innovative prediction-local and class-based model-global explanation strategies tailored to black-box deep natural-language models. Given a deep NLP model and the textual input data, T-EBAnO provides an objective, human-readable, domain-specific assessment of the reasons behind the automatic decision-making process. Specifically, the framework extracts sets of interpretable features mining the inner knowledge of the model. Then, it quantifies the influence of each feature during the prediction process by exploiting the novel normalized Perturbation Influence Relation index at the local level and the novel Global Absolute Influence and Global Relative Influence indexes at the global level. The effectiveness and the quality of the local and global explanations obtained with T-EBAnO are proved on (i) a sentiment analysis task performed by a fine-tuned BERT model, and (ii) a toxic comment classification task performed by an LSTM model.

  
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Long-Tail Zero and Few-Shot Learning via Contrastive Pretraining on and for Small Data

Oct 21, 2020
Nils Rethmeier, Isabelle Augenstein

For natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as sentiment or topic classification, currently prevailing approaches heavily rely on pretraining large self-supervised models on massive external data resources. However, this methodology is being critiqued for: exceptional compute and pretraining data requirements; diminishing returns on both large and small datasets; and importantly, favourable evaluation settings that overestimate performance differences. The core belief behind current methodology, coined `the bitter lesson' by R. Sutton, is that `compute scale-up beats data and compute-efficient algorithms', neglecting that progress in compute hardware scale-up is based almost entirely on the miniaturisation of resource consumption. We thus approach pretraining from a miniaturisation perspective, such as not to require massive external data sources and models, or learned translations from continuous input embeddings to discrete labels. To minimise overly favourable evaluation, we examine learning on a long-tailed, low-resource, multi-label text classification dataset with noisy, highly sparse labels and many rare concepts. To this end, we propose a novel `dataset-internal' contrastive autoencoding approach to self-supervised pretraining and demonstrate marked improvements in zero-shot, few-shot and solely supervised learning performance; even under an unfavorable low-resource scenario, and without defaulting to large-scale external datasets for self-supervision. We also find empirical evidence that zero and few-shot learning markedly benefit from adding more `dataset-internal', self-supervised training signals, which is of practical importance when retrieving or computing on large external sources of such signals is infeasible.

* added citations to current work 
  
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Investigating Gender Bias in BERT

Sep 10, 2020
Rishabh Bhardwaj, Navonil Majumder, Soujanya Poria

Contextual language models (CLMs) have pushed the NLP benchmarks to a new height. It has become a new norm to utilize CLM provided word embeddings in downstream tasks such as text classification. However, unless addressed, CLMs are prone to learn intrinsic gender-bias in the dataset. As a result, predictions of downstream NLP models can vary noticeably by varying gender words, such as replacing "he" to "she", or even gender-neutral words. In this paper, we focus our analysis on a popular CLM, i.e., BERT. We analyse the gender-bias it induces in five downstream tasks related to emotion and sentiment intensity prediction. For each task, we train a simple regressor utilizing BERT's word embeddings. We then evaluate the gender-bias in regressors using an equity evaluation corpus. Ideally and from the specific design, the models should discard gender informative features from the input. However, the results show a significant dependence of the system's predictions on gender-particular words and phrases. We claim that such biases can be reduced by removing genderspecific features from word embedding. Hence, for each layer in BERT, we identify directions that primarily encode gender information. The space formed by such directions is referred to as the gender subspace in the semantic space of word embeddings. We propose an algorithm that finds fine-grained gender directions, i.e., one primary direction for each BERT layer. This obviates the need of realizing gender subspace in multiple dimensions and prevents other crucial information from being omitted. Experiments show that removing embedding components in such directions achieves great success in reducing BERT-induced bias in the downstream tasks.

  
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What sets Verified Users apart? Insights, Analysis and Prediction of Verified Users on Twitter

Mar 12, 2019
Indraneil Paul, Abhinav Khattar, Shaan Chopra, Ponnurangam Kumaraguru, Manish Gupta

Social network and publishing platforms, such as Twitter, support the concept of a secret proprietary verification process, for handles they deem worthy of platform-wide public interest. In line with significant prior work which suggests that possessing such a status symbolizes enhanced credibility in the eyes of the platform audience, a verified badge is clearly coveted among public figures and brands. What are less obvious are the inner workings of the verification process and what being verified represents. This lack of clarity, coupled with the flak that Twitter received by extending aforementioned status to political extremists in 2017, backed Twitter into publicly admitting that the process and what the status represented needed to be rethought. With this in mind, we seek to unravel the aspects of a user's profile which likely engender or preclude verification. The aim of the paper is two-fold: First, we test if discerning the verification status of a handle from profile metadata and content features is feasible. Second, we unravel the features which have the greatest bearing on a handle's verification status. We collected a dataset consisting of profile metadata of all 231,235 verified English-speaking users (as of July 2018), a control sample of 175,930 non-verified English-speaking users and all their 494 million tweets over a one year collection period. Our proposed models are able to reliably identify verification status (Area under curve AUC > 99%). We show that number of public list memberships, presence of neutral sentiment in tweets and an authoritative language style are the most pertinent predictors of verification status. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first attempt at discerning and classifying verification worthy users on Twitter.

  
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