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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Research on Annotation Rules and Recognition Algorithm Based on Phrase Window

Jul 07, 2020
Guang Liu, Gang Tu, Zheng Li, Yi-Jian Liu

At present, most Natural Language Processing technology is based on the results of Word Segmentation for Dependency Parsing, which mainly uses an end-to-end method based on supervised learning. There are two main problems with this method: firstly, the la-beling rules are complex and the data is too difficult to label, the workload of which is large; secondly, the algorithm cannot recognize the multi-granularity and diversity of language components. In order to solve these two problems, we propose labeling rules based on phrase windows, and designed corresponding phrase recognition algorithms. The labeling rule uses phrases as the minimum unit, di-vides sentences into 7 types of nestable phrase types, and marks the grammatical dependencies between phrases. The corresponding algorithm, drawing on the idea of identifying the target area in the image field, can find the start and end positions of various phrases in the sentence, and realize the synchronous recognition of nested phrases and grammatical dependencies. The results of the experiment shows that the labeling rule is convenient and easy to use, and there is no ambiguity; the algorithm is more grammatically multi-granular and diverse than the end-to-end algorithm. Experiments on the CPWD dataset improve the accuracy of the end-to-end method by about 1 point. The corresponding method was applied to the CCL2018 competition, and the first place in the Chinese Metaphor Sentiment Analysis Task.

* in Chinese 

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Train No Evil: Selective Masking for Task-guided Pre-training

Apr 21, 2020
Yuxian Gu, Zhengyan Zhang, Xiaozhi Wang, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun

Recently, pre-trained language models mostly follow the pre-training-then-fine-tuning paradigm and have achieved great performances on various downstream tasks. However, due to the aimlessness of pre-training and the small in-domain supervised data scale of fine-tuning, the two-stage models typically cannot capture the domain-specific and task-specific language patterns well. In this paper, we propose a selective masking task-guided pre-training method and add it between the general pre-training and fine-tuning. In this stage, we train the masked language modeling task on in-domain unsupervised data, which enables our model to effectively learn the domain-specific language patterns. To efficiently learn the task-specific language patterns, we adopt a selective masking strategy instead of the conventional random masking, which means we only mask the tokens that are important to the downstream task. Specifically, we define the importance of tokens as their impacts on the final classification results and use a neural model to learn the implicit selecting rules. Experimental results on two sentiment analysis tasks show that our method can achieve comparable or even better performance with less than 50\% overall computation cost, which indicates our method is both effective and efficient. The source code will be released in the future.

* 6 pages, 2 figures 

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Cycle Self-Training for Domain Adaptation

Mar 05, 2021
Hong Liu, Jianmin Wang, Mingsheng Long

Mainstream approaches for unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) learn domain-invariant representations to bridge domain gap. More recently, self-training has been gaining momentum in UDA. Originated from semi-supervised learning, self-training uses unlabeled data efficiently by training on pseudo-labels. However, as corroborated in this work, under distributional shift in UDA, the pseudo-labels can be unreliable in terms of their large discrepancy from the ground truth labels. Thereby, we propose Cycle Self-Training (CST), a principled self-training algorithm that enforces pseudo-labels to generalize across domains. In the forward step, CST generates target pseudo-labels with a source-trained classifier. In the reverse step, CST trains a target classifier using target pseudo-labels, and then updates the shared representations to make the target classifier perform well on the source data. We introduce the Tsallis entropy, a novel regularization to improve the quality of target pseudo-labels. On quadratic neural networks, we prove that CST recovers target ground truth, while both invariant feature learning and vanilla self-training fail. Empirical results indicate that CST significantly improves over prior state-of-the-arts in standard UDA benchmarks across visual recognition and sentiment analysis tasks.


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Understanding the temporal evolution of COVID-19 research through machine learning and natural language processing

Jul 22, 2020
Ashkan Ebadi, Pengcheng Xi, Stéphane Tremblay, Bruce Spencer, Raman Pall, Alexander Wong

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been continuously affecting human lives and communities around the world in many ways, from cities under lockdown to new social experiences. Although in most cases COVID-19 results in mild illness, it has drawn global attention due to the extremely contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2. Governments and healthcare professionals, along with people and society as a whole, have taken any measures to break the chain of transition and flatten the epidemic curve. In this study, we used multiple data sources, i.e., PubMed and ArXiv, and built several machine learning models to characterize the landscape of current COVID-19 research by identifying the latent topics and analyzing the temporal evolution of the extracted research themes, publications similarity, and sentiments, within the time-frame of January- May 2020. Our findings confirm the types of research available in PubMed and ArXiv differ significantly, with the former exhibiting greater diversity in terms of COVID-19 related issues and the latter focusing more on intelligent systems/tools to predict/diagnose COVID-19. The special attention of the research community to the high-risk groups and people with complications was also confirmed.


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Extracting Actionable Knowledge from Domestic Violence Discourses on Social Media

Jul 05, 2018
Sudha Subramani, Manjula O'Connor

Domestic Violence (DV) is considered as big social issue and there exists a strong relationship between DV and health impacts of the public. Existing research studies have focused on social media to track and analyse real world events like emerging trends, natural disasters, user sentiment analysis, political opinions, and health care. However there is less attention given on social welfare issues like DV and its impact on public health. Recently, the victims of DV turned to social media platforms to express their feelings in the form of posts and seek the social and emotional support, for sympathetic encouragement, to show compassion and empathy among public. But, it is difficult to mine the actionable knowledge from large conversational datasets from social media due to the characteristics of high dimensions, short, noisy, huge volume, high velocity, and so on. Hence, this paper will propose a novel framework to model and discover the various themes related to DV from the public domain. The proposed framework would possibly provide unprecedentedly valuable information to the public health researchers, national family health organizations, government and public with data enrichment and consolidation to improve the social welfare of the community. Thus provides actionable knowledge by monitoring and analysing continuous and rich user generated content.


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Estimating Causal Effects of Multi-Aspect Online Reviews with Multi-Modal Proxies

Jan 02, 2022
Lu Cheng, Ruocheng Guo, Huan Liu

Online reviews enable consumers to engage with companies and provide important feedback. Due to the complexity of the high-dimensional text, these reviews are often simplified as a single numerical score, e.g., ratings or sentiment scores. This work empirically examines the causal effects of user-generated online reviews on a granular level: we consider multiple aspects, e.g., the Food and Service of a restaurant. Understanding consumers' opinions toward different aspects can help evaluate business performance in detail and strategize business operations effectively. Specifically, we aim to answer interventional questions such as What will the restaurant popularity be if the quality w.r.t. its aspect Service is increased by 10%? The defining challenge of causal inference with observational data is the presence of "confounder", which might not be observed or measured, e.g., consumers' preference to food type, rendering the estimated effects biased and high-variance. To address this challenge, we have recourse to the multi-modal proxies such as the consumer profile information and interactions between consumers and businesses. We show how to effectively leverage the rich information to identify and estimate causal effects of multiple aspects embedded in online reviews. Empirical evaluations on synthetic and real-world data corroborate the efficacy and shed light on the actionable insight of the proposed approach.

* 10 pages, 6 figures, accepted to WSDM22 

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An Attention Score Based Attacker for Black-box NLP Classifier

Jan 01, 2022
Yueyang Liu, Hunmin Lee, Zhipeng Cai

Deep neural networks have a wide range of applications in solving various real-world tasks and have achieved satisfactory results, in domains such as computer vision, image classification, and natural language processing. Meanwhile, the security and robustness of neural networks have become imperative, as diverse researches have shown the vulnerable aspects of neural networks. Case in point, in Natural language processing tasks, the neural network may be fooled by an attentively modified text, which has a high similarity to the original one. As per previous research, most of the studies are focused on the image domain; Different from image adversarial attacks, the text is represented in a discrete sequence, traditional image attack methods are not applicable in the NLP field. In this paper, we propose a word-level NLP sentiment classifier attack model, which includes a self-attention mechanism-based word selection method and a greedy search algorithm for word substitution. We experiment with our attack model by attacking GRU and 1D-CNN victim models on IMDB datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that our model achieves a higher attack success rate and more efficient than previous methods due to the efficient word selection algorithms are employed and minimized the word substitute number. Also, our model is transferable, which can be used in the image domain with several modifications.


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SLUE: New Benchmark Tasks for Spoken Language Understanding Evaluation on Natural Speech

Nov 19, 2021
Suwon Shon, Ankita Pasad, Felix Wu, Pablo Brusco, Yoav Artzi, Karen Livescu, Kyu J. Han

Progress in speech processing has been facilitated by shared datasets and benchmarks. Historically these have focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR), speaker identification, or other lower-level tasks. Interest has been growing in higher-level spoken language understanding tasks, including using end-to-end models, but there are fewer annotated datasets for such tasks. At the same time, recent work shows the possibility of pre-training generic representations and then fine-tuning for several tasks using relatively little labeled data. We propose to create a suite of benchmark tasks for Spoken Language Understanding Evaluation (SLUE) consisting of limited-size labeled training sets and corresponding evaluation sets. This resource would allow the research community to track progress, evaluate pre-trained representations for higher-level tasks, and study open questions such as the utility of pipeline versus end-to-end approaches. We present the first phase of the SLUE benchmark suite, consisting of named entity recognition, sentiment analysis, and ASR on the corresponding datasets. We focus on naturally produced (not read or synthesized) speech, and freely available datasets. We provide new transcriptions and annotations on subsets of the VoxCeleb and VoxPopuli datasets, evaluation metrics and results for baseline models, and an open-source toolkit to reproduce the baselines and evaluate new models.

* Toolkit link https://github.com/asappresearch/slue-toolkit 

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