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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

TEASEL: A Transformer-Based Speech-Prefixed Language Model

Sep 12, 2021
Mehdi Arjmand, Mohammad Javad Dousti, Hadi Moradi

Multimodal language analysis is a burgeoning field of NLP that aims to simultaneously model a speaker's words, acoustical annotations, and facial expressions. In this area, lexicon features usually outperform other modalities because they are pre-trained on large corpora via Transformer-based models. Despite their strong performance, training a new self-supervised learning (SSL) Transformer on any modality is not usually attainable due to insufficient data, which is the case in multimodal language learning. This work proposes a Transformer-Based Speech-Prefixed Language Model called TEASEL to approach the mentioned constraints without training a complete Transformer model. TEASEL model includes speech modality as a dynamic prefix besides the textual modality compared to a conventional language model. This method exploits a conventional pre-trained language model as a cross-modal Transformer model. We evaluated TEASEL for the multimodal sentiment analysis task defined by CMU-MOSI dataset. Extensive experiments show that our model outperforms unimodal baseline language models by 4% and outperforms the current multimodal state-of-the-art (SoTA) model by 1% in F1-score. Additionally, our proposed method is 72% smaller than the SoTA model.


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PTR: Prompt Tuning with Rules for Text Classification

May 31, 2021
Xu Han, Weilin Zhao, Ning Ding, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun

Fine-tuned pre-trained language models (PLMs) have achieved awesome performance on almost all NLP tasks. By using additional prompts to fine-tune PLMs, we can further stimulate the rich knowledge distributed in PLMs to better serve downstream task. Prompt tuning has achieved promising results on some few-class classification tasks such as sentiment classification and natural language inference. However, manually designing lots of language prompts is cumbersome and fallible. For those auto-generated prompts, it is also expensive and time-consuming to verify their effectiveness in non-few-shot scenarios. Hence, it is challenging for prompt tuning to address many-class classification tasks. To this end, we propose prompt tuning with rules (PTR) for many-class text classification, and apply logic rules to construct prompts with several sub-prompts. In this way, PTR is able to encode prior knowledge of each class into prompt tuning. We conduct experiments on relation classification, a typical many-class classification task, and the results on benchmarks show that PTR can significantly and consistently outperform existing state-of-the-art baselines. This indicates that PTR is a promising approach to take advantage of PLMs for those complicated classification tasks.


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Trade the Event: Corporate Events Detection for News-Based Event-Driven Trading

May 28, 2021
Zhihan Zhou, Liqian Ma, Han Liu

In this paper, we introduce an event-driven trading strategy that predicts stock movements by detecting corporate events from news articles. Unlike existing models that utilize textual features (e.g., bag-of-words) and sentiments to directly make stock predictions, we consider corporate events as the driving force behind stock movements and aim to profit from the temporary stock mispricing that may occur when corporate events take place. The core of the proposed strategy is a bi-level event detection model. The low-level event detector identifies events' existences from each token, while the high-level event detector incorporates the entire article's representation and the low-level detected results to discover events at the article-level. We also develop an elaborately-annotated dataset EDT for corporate event detection and news-based stock prediction benchmark. EDT includes 9721 news articles with token-level event labels as well as 303893 news articles with minute-level timestamps and comprehensive stock price labels. Experiments on EDT indicate that the proposed strategy outperforms all the baselines in winning rate, excess returns over the market, and the average return on each transaction.

* Accepted to publish in Findings of ACL 2021 

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Learning Better Sentence Representation with Syntax Information

Jan 09, 2021
Chen Yang

Sentence semantic understanding is a key topic in the field of natural language processing. Recently, contextualized word representations derived from pre-trained language models such as ELMO and BERT have shown significant improvements for a wide range of semantic tasks, e.g. question answering, text classification and sentiment analysis. However, how to add external knowledge to further improve the semantic modeling capability of model is worth probing. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to combining syntax information with a pre-trained language model. In order to evaluate the effect of the pre-training model, first, we introduce RNN-based and Transformer-based pre-trained language models; secondly, to better integrate external knowledge, such as syntactic information integrate with the pre-training model, we propose a dependency syntax expansion (DSE) model. For evaluation, we have selected two subtasks: sentence completion task and biological relation extraction task. The experimental results show that our model achieves 91.2\% accuracy, outperforming the baseline model by 37.8\% on sentence completion task. And it also gets competitive performance by 75.1\% $F_{1}$ score on relation extraction task.


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ClimaText: A Dataset for Climate Change Topic Detection

Jan 02, 2021
Francesco S. Varini, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Massimiliano Ciaramita, Markus Leippold

Climate change communication in the mass media and other textual sources may affect and shape public perception. Extracting climate change information from these sources is an important task, e.g., for filtering content and e-discovery, sentiment analysis, automatic summarization, question-answering, and fact-checking. However, automating this process is a challenge, as climate change is a complex, fast-moving, and often ambiguous topic with scarce resources for popular text-based AI tasks. In this paper, we introduce \textsc{ClimaText}, a dataset for sentence-based climate change topic detection, which we make publicly available. We explore different approaches to identify the climate change topic in various text sources. We find that popular keyword-based models are not adequate for such a complex and evolving task. Context-based algorithms like BERT \cite{devlin2018bert} can detect, in addition to many trivial cases, a variety of complex and implicit topic patterns. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals a great potential for improvement in several directions, such as, e.g., capturing the discussion on indirect effects of climate change. Hence, we hope this work can serve as a good starting point for further research on this topic.

* Accepted for the Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning Workshop at NeurIPS 2020 

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Should I visit this place? Inclusion and Exclusion Phrase Mining from Reviews

Dec 18, 2020
Omkar Gurjar, Manish Gupta

Although several automatic itinerary generation services have made travel planning easy, often times travellers find themselves in unique situations where they cannot make the best out of their trip. Visitors differ in terms of many factors such as suffering from a disability, being of a particular dietary preference, travelling with a toddler, etc. While most tourist spots are universal, others may not be inclusive for all. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mining inclusion and exclusion phrases associated with 11 such factors, from reviews related to a tourist spot. While existing work on tourism data mining mainly focuses on structured extraction of trip related information, personalized sentiment analysis, and automatic itinerary generation, to the best of our knowledge this is the first work on inclusion/exclusion phrase mining from tourism reviews. Using a dataset of 2000 reviews related to 1000 tourist spots, our broad level classifier provides a binary overlap F1 of $\sim$80 and $\sim$82 to classify a phrase as inclusion or exclusion respectively. Further, our inclusion/exclusion classifier provides an F1 of $\sim$98 and $\sim$97 for 11-class inclusion and exclusion classification respectively. We believe that our work can significantly improve the quality of an automatic itinerary generation service.

* Accepted at European Conference On Information Retrieval (ECIR) 2021; 8 pages 

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Token Sequence Labeling vs. Clause Classification for English Emotion Stimulus Detection

Nov 09, 2020
Laura Oberländer, Roman Klinger

Emotion stimulus detection is the task of finding the cause of an emotion in a textual description, similar to target or aspect detection for sentiment analysis. Previous work approached this in three ways, namely (1) as text classification into an inventory of predefined possible stimuli ("Is the stimulus category A or B?"), (2) as sequence labeling of tokens ("Which tokens describe the stimulus?"), and (3) as clause classification ("Does this clause contain the emotion stimulus?"). So far, setting (3) has been evaluated broadly on Mandarin and (2) on English, but no comparison has been performed. Therefore, we aim to answer whether clause classification or sequence labeling is better suited for emotion stimulus detection in English. To accomplish that, we propose an integrated framework which enables us to evaluate the two different approaches comparably, implement models inspired by state-of-the-art approaches in Mandarin, and test them on four English data sets from different domains. Our results show that sequence labeling is superior on three out of four datasets, in both clause-based and sequence-based evaluation. The only case in which clause classification performs better is one data set with a high density of clause annotations. Our error analysis further confirms quantitatively and qualitatively that clauses are not the appropriate stimulus unit in English.

* accepted at *SEM 2020 

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