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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Data Poisoning Attacks and Defenses to Crowdsourcing Systems

Feb 18, 2021
Minghong Fang, Minghao Sun, Qi Li, Neil Zhenqiang Gong, Jin Tian, Jia Liu

A key challenge of big data analytics is how to collect a large volume of (labeled) data. Crowdsourcing aims to address this challenge via aggregating and estimating high-quality data (e.g., sentiment label for text) from pervasive clients/users. Existing studies on crowdsourcing focus on designing new methods to improve the aggregated data quality from unreliable/noisy clients. However, the security aspects of such crowdsourcing systems remain under-explored to date. We aim to bridge this gap in this work. Specifically, we show that crowdsourcing is vulnerable to data poisoning attacks, in which malicious clients provide carefully crafted data to corrupt the aggregated data. We formulate our proposed data poisoning attacks as an optimization problem that maximizes the error of the aggregated data. Our evaluation results on one synthetic and two real-world benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed attacks can substantially increase the estimation errors of the aggregated data. We also propose two defenses to reduce the impact of malicious clients. Our empirical results show that the proposed defenses can substantially reduce the estimation errors of the data poisoning attacks.

* To appear in the Web Conference 2021 (WWW '21) 

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Learning to Attack: Towards Textual Adversarial Attacking in Real-world Situations

Sep 19, 2020
Yuan Zang, Bairu Hou, Fanchao Qi, Zhiyuan Liu, Xiaojun Meng, Maosong Sun

Adversarial attacking aims to fool deep neural networks with adversarial examples. In the field of natural language processing, various textual adversarial attack models have been proposed, varying in the accessibility to the victim model. Among them, the attack models that only require the output of the victim model are more fit for real-world situations of adversarial attacking. However, to achieve high attack performance, these models usually need to query the victim model too many times, which is neither efficient nor viable in practice. To tackle this problem, we propose a reinforcement learning based attack model, which can learn from attack history and launch attacks more efficiently. In experiments, we evaluate our model by attacking several state-of-the-art models on the benchmark datasets of multiple tasks including sentiment analysis, text classification and natural language inference. Experimental results demonstrate that our model consistently achieves both better attack performance and higher efficiency than recently proposed baseline methods. We also find our attack model can bring more robustness improvement to the victim model by adversarial training. All the code and data of this paper will be made public.

* work in progress, 10 pages, 6 figures 

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A Transformer-based approach to Irony and Sarcasm detection

Nov 23, 2019
Rolandos Alexandros Potamias, Georgios Siolas, Andreas - Georgios Stafylopatis

Figurative Language (FL) seems ubiquitous in all social-media discussion forums and chats, posing extra challenges to sentiment analysis endeavors. Identification of FL schemas in short texts remains largely an unresolved issue in the broader field of Natural Language Processing (NLP), mainly due to their contradictory and metaphorical meaning content. The main FL expression forms are sarcasm, irony and metaphor. In the present paper we employ advanced Deep Learning (DL) methodologies to tackle the problem of identifying the aforementioned FL forms. Significantly extending our previous work [71], we propose a neural network methodology that builds on a recently proposed pre-trained transformer-based network architecture which, is further enhanced with the employment and devise of a recurrent convolutional neural network (RCNN). With this set-up, data preprocessing is kept in minimum. The performance of the devised hybrid neural architecture is tested on four benchmark datasets, and contrasted with other relevant state of the art methodologies and systems. Results demonstrate that the proposed methodology achieves state of the art performance under all benchmark datasets, outperforming, even by a large margin, all other methodologies and published studies.

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An end-to-end Neural Network Framework for Text Clustering

Mar 22, 2019
Jie Zhou, Xingyi Cheng, Jinchao Zhang

The unsupervised text clustering is one of the major tasks in natural language processing (NLP) and remains a difficult and complex problem. Conventional \mbox{methods} generally treat this task using separated steps, including text representation learning and clustering the representations. As an improvement, neural methods have also been introduced for continuous representation learning to address the sparsity problem. However, the multi-step process still deviates from the unified optimization target. Especially the second step of cluster is generally performed with conventional methods such as k-Means. We propose a pure neural framework for text clustering in an end-to-end manner. It jointly learns the text representation and the clustering model. Our model works well when the context can be obtained, which is nearly always the case in the field of NLP. We have our method \mbox{evaluated} on two widely used benchmarks: IMDB movie reviews for sentiment classification and $20$-Newsgroup for topic categorization. Despite its simplicity, experiments show the model outperforms previous clustering methods by a large margin. Furthermore, the model is also verified on English wiki dataset as a large corpus.

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Words Can Shift: Dynamically Adjusting Word Representations Using Nonverbal Behaviors

Nov 26, 2018
Yansen Wang, Ying Shen, Zhun Liu, Paul Pu Liang, Amir Zadeh, Louis-Philippe Morency

Humans convey their intentions through the usage of both verbal and nonverbal behaviors during face-to-face communication. Speaker intentions often vary dynamically depending on different nonverbal contexts, such as vocal patterns and facial expressions. As a result, when modeling human language, it is essential to not only consider the literal meaning of the words but also the nonverbal contexts in which these words appear. To better model human language, we first model expressive nonverbal representations by analyzing the fine-grained visual and acoustic patterns that occur during word segments. In addition, we seek to capture the dynamic nature of nonverbal intents by shifting word representations based on the accompanying nonverbal behaviors. To this end, we propose the Recurrent Attended Variation Embedding Network (RAVEN) that models the fine-grained structure of nonverbal subword sequences and dynamically shifts word representations based on nonverbal cues. Our proposed model achieves competitive performance on two publicly available datasets for multimodal sentiment analysis and emotion recognition. We also visualize the shifted word representations in different nonverbal contexts and summarize common patterns regarding multimodal variations of word representations.

* Accepted by AAAI2019 

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Unsupervised Text Style Transfer using Language Models as Discriminators

May 31, 2018
Zichao Yang, Zhiting Hu, Chris Dyer, Eric P. Xing, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick

Binary classifiers are often employed as discriminators in GAN-based unsupervised style transfer systems to ensure that transferred sentences are similar to sentences in the target domain. One difficulty with this approach is that the error signal provided by the discriminator can be unstable and is sometimes insufficient to train the generator to produce fluent language. In this paper, we propose a new technique that uses a target domain language model as the discriminator, providing richer and more stable token-level feedback during the learning process. We train the generator to minimize the negative log likelihood (NLL) of generated sentences, evaluated by the language model. By using a continuous approximation of discrete sampling under the generator, our model can be trained using back-propagation in an end- to-end fashion. Moreover, our empirical results show that when using a language model as a structured discriminator, it is possible to forgoe adversarial steps during training, making the process more stable. We compare our model with previous work using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as discriminators and show that our approach leads to improved performance on three tasks: word substitution decipherment, sentiment modification, and related language translation.

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Rafiki: Machine Learning as an Analytics Service System

Apr 17, 2018
Wei Wang, Sheng Wang, Jinyang Gao, Meihui Zhang, Gang Chen, Teck Khim Ng, Beng Chin Ooi

Big data analytics is gaining massive momentum in the last few years. Applying machine learning models to big data has become an implicit requirement or an expectation for most analysis tasks, especially on high-stakes applications.Typical applications include sentiment analysis against reviews for analyzing on-line products, image classification in food logging applications for monitoring user's daily intake and stock movement prediction. Extending traditional database systems to support the above analysis is intriguing but challenging. First, it is almost impossible to implement all machine learning models in the database engines. Second, expertise knowledge is required to optimize the training and inference procedures in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, which imposes heavy burden on the system users. In this paper, we develop and present a system, called Rafiki, to provide the training and inference service of machine learning models, and facilitate complex analytics on top of cloud platforms. Rafiki provides distributed hyper-parameter tuning for the training service, and online ensemble modeling for the inference service which trades off between latency and accuracy. Experimental results confirm the efficiency, effectiveness, scalability and usability of Rafiki.

* 13 pages 

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Comparative Opinion Mining: A Review

Dec 24, 2017
Kasturi Dewi Varathan, Anastasia Giachanou, Fabio Crestani

Opinion mining refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in textual material. Opinion mining, also known as sentiment analysis, has received a lot of attention in recent times, as it provides a number of tools to analyse the public opinion on a number of different topics. Comparative opinion mining is a subfield of opinion mining that deals with identifying and extracting information that is expressed in a comparative form (e.g.~"paper X is better than the Y"). Comparative opinion mining plays a very important role when ones tries to evaluate something, as it provides a reference point for the comparison. This paper provides a review of the area of comparative opinion mining. It is the first review that cover specifically this topic as all previous reviews dealt mostly with general opinion mining. This survey covers comparative opinion mining from two different angles. One from perspective of techniques and the other from perspective of comparative opinion elements. It also incorporates preprocessing tools as well as dataset that were used by the past researchers that can be useful to the future researchers in the field of comparative opinion mining.

* Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(4), 2017 

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Explainable Artificial Intelligence: Understanding, Visualizing and Interpreting Deep Learning Models

Aug 28, 2017
Wojciech Samek, Thomas Wiegand, Klaus-Robert Müller

With the availability of large databases and recent improvements in deep learning methodology, the performance of AI systems is reaching or even exceeding the human level on an increasing number of complex tasks. Impressive examples of this development can be found in domains such as image classification, sentiment analysis, speech understanding or strategic game playing. However, because of their nested non-linear structure, these highly successful machine learning and artificial intelligence models are usually applied in a black box manner, i.e., no information is provided about what exactly makes them arrive at their predictions. Since this lack of transparency can be a major drawback, e.g., in medical applications, the development of methods for visualizing, explaining and interpreting deep learning models has recently attracted increasing attention. This paper summarizes recent developments in this field and makes a plea for more interpretability in artificial intelligence. Furthermore, it presents two approaches to explaining predictions of deep learning models, one method which computes the sensitivity of the prediction with respect to changes in the input and one approach which meaningfully decomposes the decision in terms of the input variables. These methods are evaluated on three classification tasks.

* 8 pages, 2 figures 

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Mining of product reviews at aspect level

Jun 14, 2014
Richa Sharma, Shweta Nigam, Rekha Jain

Todays world is a world of Internet, almost all work can be done with the help of it, from simple mobile phone recharge to biggest business deals can be done with the help of this technology. People spent their most of the times on surfing on the Web it becomes a new source of entertainment, education, communication, shopping etc. Users not only use these websites but also give their feedback and suggestions that will be useful for other users. In this way a large amount of reviews of users are collected on the Web that needs to be explored, analyse and organized for better decision making. Opinion Mining or Sentiment Analysis is a Natural Language Processing and Information Extraction task that identifies the users views or opinions explained in the form of positive, negative or neutral comments and quotes underlying the text. Aspect based opinion mining is one of the level of Opinion mining that determines the aspect of the given reviews and classify the review for each feature. In this paper an aspect based opinion mining system is proposed to classify the reviews as positive, negative and neutral for each feature. Negation is also handled in the proposed system. Experimental results using reviews of products show the effectiveness of the system.

* International Journal in Foundations of Computer Science & Technology (IJFCST), Vol.4, No.3, May 2014 

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