Multimodal research is an emerging field of artificial intelligence, and one of the main research problems in this field is multimodal fusion. The fusion of multimodal data is the process of integrating multiple unimodal representations into one compact multimodal representation. Previous research in this field has exploited the expressiveness of tensors for multimodal representation. However, these methods often suffer from exponential increase in dimensions and in computational complexity introduced by transformation of input into tensor. In this paper, we propose the Low-rank Multimodal Fusion method, which performs multimodal fusion using low-rank tensors to improve efficiency. We evaluate our model on three different tasks: multimodal sentiment analysis, speaker trait analysis, and emotion recognition. Our model achieves competitive results on all these tasks while drastically reducing computational complexity. Additional experiments also show that our model can perform robustly for a wide range of low-rank settings, and is indeed much more efficient in both training and inference compared to other methods that utilize tensor representations.
In this paper, we introduce a novel type of Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU), called a Dual Rectified Linear Unit (DReLU). A DReLU, which comes with an unbounded positive and negative image, can be used as a drop-in replacement for a tanh activation function in the recurrent step of Quasi-Recurrent Neural Networks (QRNNs) (Bradbury et al. (2017)). Similar to ReLUs, DReLUs are less prone to the vanishing gradient problem, they are noise robust, and they induce sparse activations. We independently reproduce the QRNN experiments of Bradbury et al. (2017) and compare our DReLU-based QRNNs with the original tanh-based QRNNs and Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs) on sentiment classification and word-level language modeling. Additionally, we evaluate on character-level language modeling, showing that we are able to stack up to eight QRNN layers with DReLUs, thus making it possible to improve the current state-of-the-art in character-level language modeling over shallow architectures based on LSTMs.
Over the recent years, large pretrained language models (LM) have revolutionized the field of natural language processing (NLP). However, while pretraining on general language has been shown to work very well for common language, it has been observed that niche language poses problems. In particular, climate-related texts include specific language that common LMs can not represent accurately. We argue that this shortcoming of today's LMs limits the applicability of modern NLP to the broad field of text processing of climate-related texts. As a remedy, we propose ClimateBert, a transformer-based language model that is further pretrained on over 1.6 million paragraphs of climate-related texts, crawled from various sources such as common news, research articles, and climate reporting of companies. We find that ClimateBertleads to a 46% improvement on a masked language model objective which, in turn, leads to lowering error rates by 3.57% to 35.71% for various climate-related downstream tasks like text classification, sentiment analysis, and fact-checking.
Framing a news article means to portray the reported event from a specific perspective, e.g., from an economic or a health perspective. Reframing means to change this perspective. Depending on the audience or the submessage, reframing can become necessary to achieve the desired effect on the readers. Reframing is related to adapting style and sentiment, which can be tackled with neural text generation techniques. However, it is more challenging since changing a frame requires rewriting entire sentences rather than single phrases. In this paper, we study how to computationally reframe sentences in news articles while maintaining their coherence to the context. We treat reframing as a sentence-level fill-in-the-blank task for which we train neural models on an existing media frame corpus. To guide the training, we propose three strategies: framed-language pretraining, named-entity preservation, and adversarial learning. We evaluate respective models automatically and manually for topic consistency, coherence, and successful reframing. Our results indicate that generating properly-framed text works well but with tradeoffs.
As a prominent attribution-based explanation algorithm, Integrated Gradients (IG) is widely adopted due to its desirable explanation axioms and the ease of gradient computation. It measures feature importance by averaging the model's output gradient interpolated along a straight-line path in the input data space. However, such straight-line interpolated points are not representative of text data due to the inherent discreteness of the word embedding space. This questions the faithfulness of the gradients computed at the interpolated points and consequently, the quality of the generated explanations. Here we propose Discretized Integrated Gradients (DIG), which allows effective attribution along non-linear interpolation paths. We develop two interpolation strategies for the discrete word embedding space that generates interpolation points that lie close to actual words in the embedding space, yielding more faithful gradient computation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DIG over IG through experimental and human evaluations on multiple sentiment classification datasets. We provide the source code of DIG to encourage reproducible research.
The flexibility of the inference process in Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) has recently led to revising traditional probabilistic topic models giving rise to Neural Topic Models (NTM). Although these approaches have achieved significant results, surprisingly very little work has been done on how to disentangle the latent topics. Existing topic models when applied to reviews may extract topics associated with writers' subjective opinions mixed with those related to factual descriptions such as plot summaries in movie and book reviews. It is thus desirable to automatically separate opinion topics from plot/neutral ones enabling a better interpretability. In this paper, we propose a neural topic model combined with adversarial training to disentangle opinion topics from plot and neutral ones. We conduct an extensive experimental assessment introducing a new collection of movie and book reviews paired with their plots, namely MOBO dataset, showing an improved coherence and variety of topics, a consistent disentanglement rate, and sentiment classification performance superior to other supervised topic models.
Modern NLP defines the task of style transfer as modifying the style of a given sentence without appreciably changing its semantics, which implies that the outputs of style transfer systems should be paraphrases of their inputs. However, many existing systems purportedly designed for style transfer inherently warp the input's meaning through attribute transfer, which changes semantic properties such as sentiment. In this paper, we reformulate unsupervised style transfer as a paraphrase generation problem, and present a simple methodology based on fine-tuning pretrained language models on automatically generated paraphrase data. Despite its simplicity, our method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art style transfer systems on both human and automatic evaluations. We also survey 23 style transfer papers and discover that existing automatic metrics can be easily gamed and propose fixed variants. Finally, we pivot to a more real-world style transfer setting by collecting a large dataset of 15M sentences in 11 diverse styles, which we use for an in-depth analysis of our system.
Identifying controversial posts on social media is a fundamental task for mining public sentiment, assessing the influence of events, and alleviating the polarized views. However, existing methods fail to 1) effectively incorporate the semantic information from content-related posts; 2) preserve the structural information for reply relationship modeling; 3) properly handle posts from topics dissimilar to those in the training set. To overcome the first two limitations, we propose Topic-Post-Comment Graph Convolutional Network (TPC-GCN), which integrates the information from the graph structure and content of topics, posts, and comments for post-level controversy detection. As to the third limitation, we extend our model to Disentangled TPC-GCN (DTPC-GCN), to disentangle topic-related and topic-unrelated features and then fuse dynamically. Extensive experiments on two real-world datasets demonstrate that our models outperform existing methods. Analysis of the results and cases proves that our models can integrate both semantic and structural information with significant generalizability.
The Arabic language is a morphologically rich and complex language with relatively little resources and a less explored syntax compared to English. Given these limitations, tasks like Sentiment Analysis (SA), Named Entity Recognition (NER), and Question Answering (QA), have proven to be very challenging to tackle. Recently, with the surge of transformers based models, language-specific BERT based models proved to have a very efficient understanding of languages, provided they are pre-trained on a very large corpus. Such models were able to set new standards and achieve state-of-the-art results for most NLP tasks. In this paper, we pre-trained BERT specifically for the Arabic language in the pursuit of achieving the same success that BERT did for the English language. We then compare the performance of AraBERT with multilingual BERT provided by Google and other state-of-the-art approaches. The results of the conducted experiments show that the newly developed AraBERT achieved state-of-the-art results on most tested tasks. The pretrained araBERT models are publicly available on hoping to encourage research and applications for Arabic NLP.
Speech emotion recognition is a challenging problem because human convey emotions in subtle and complex ways. For emotion recognition on human speech, one can either extract emotion related features from audio signals or employ speech recognition techniques to generate text from speech and then apply natural language processing to analyze the sentiment. Further, emotion recognition will be beneficial from using audio-textual multimodal information, it is not trivial to build a system to learn from multimodality. One can build models for two input sources separately and combine them in a decision level, but this method ignores the interaction between speech and text in the temporal domain. In this paper, we propose to use an attention mechanism to learn the alignment between speech frames and text words, aiming to produce more accurate multimodal feature representations. The aligned multimodal features are fed into a sequential model for emotion recognition. We evaluate the approach on the IEMOCAP dataset and the experimental results show the proposed approach achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the dataset.