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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Dual Supervised Learning

Jul 03, 2017
Yingce Xia, Tao Qin, Wei Chen, Jiang Bian, Nenghai Yu, Tie-Yan Liu

Many supervised learning tasks are emerged in dual forms, e.g., English-to-French translation vs. French-to-English translation, speech recognition vs. text to speech, and image classification vs. image generation. Two dual tasks have intrinsic connections with each other due to the probabilistic correlation between their models. This connection is, however, not effectively utilized today, since people usually train the models of two dual tasks separately and independently. In this work, we propose training the models of two dual tasks simultaneously, and explicitly exploiting the probabilistic correlation between them to regularize the training process. For ease of reference, we call the proposed approach \emph{dual supervised learning}. We demonstrate that dual supervised learning can improve the practical performances of both tasks, for various applications including machine translation, image processing, and sentiment analysis.

* ICML 2017 

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PAC-Bayesian Theorems for Domain Adaptation with Specialization to Linear Classifiers

Aug 09, 2016
Pascal Germain, Amaury Habrard, François Laviolette, Emilie Morvant

In this paper, we provide two main contributions in PAC-Bayesian theory for domain adaptation where the objective is to learn, from a source distribution, a well-performing majority vote on a different target distribution. On the one hand, we propose an improvement of the previous approach proposed by Germain et al. (2013), that relies on a novel distribution pseudodistance based on a disagreement averaging, allowing us to derive a new tighter PAC-Bayesian domain adaptation bound for the stochastic Gibbs classifier. We specialize it to linear classifiers, and design a learning algorithm which shows interesting results on a synthetic problem and on a popular sentiment annotation task. On the other hand, we generalize these results to multisource domain adaptation allowing us to take into account different source domains. This study opens the door to tackle domain adaptation tasks by making use of all the PAC-Bayesian tools.

* This report is a long version of our paper entitled A PAC-Bayesian Approach for Domain Adaptation with Specialization to Linear Classifiers published in the proceedings of the International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) 2013. We improved our main results, extended our experiments, and proposed an extension to multisource domain adaptation 

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Skip-Thought Vectors

Jun 22, 2015
Ryan Kiros, Yukun Zhu, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Richard S. Zemel, Antonio Torralba, Raquel Urtasun, Sanja Fidler

We describe an approach for unsupervised learning of a generic, distributed sentence encoder. Using the continuity of text from books, we train an encoder-decoder model that tries to reconstruct the surrounding sentences of an encoded passage. Sentences that share semantic and syntactic properties are thus mapped to similar vector representations. We next introduce a simple vocabulary expansion method to encode words that were not seen as part of training, allowing us to expand our vocabulary to a million words. After training our model, we extract and evaluate our vectors with linear models on 8 tasks: semantic relatedness, paraphrase detection, image-sentence ranking, question-type classification and 4 benchmark sentiment and subjectivity datasets. The end result is an off-the-shelf encoder that can produce highly generic sentence representations that are robust and perform well in practice. We will make our encoder publicly available.

* 11 pages 

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A Framework for Fast Polarity Labelling of Massive Data Streams

Mar 23, 2022
Huilin Wu, Mian Lu, Zhao Zheng, Shuhao Zhang

Many of the existing sentiment analysis techniques are based on supervised learning, and they demand the availability of valuable training datasets to train their models. When dataset freshness is critical, the annotating of high speed unlabelled data streams becomes critical but remains an open problem. In this paper, we propose PLStream, a novel Apache Flink-based framework for fast polarity labelling of massive data streams, like Twitter tweets or online product reviews. We address the associated implementation challenges and propose a list of techniques including both algorithmic improvements and system optimizations. A thorough empirical validation with two real-world workloads demonstrates that PLStream is able to generate high quality labels (almost 80% accuracy) in the presence of high-speed continuous unlabelled data streams (almost 16,000 tuples/sec) without any manual efforts.

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Commonsense Reasoning for Identifying and Understanding the Implicit Need of Help and Synthesizing Assistive Actions

Feb 23, 2022
Maëlic Neau, Paulo Santos, Anne-Gwenn Bosser, Nathan Beu, Cédric Buche

Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is an emerging subfield of service robotics. While most existing approaches rely on explicit signals (i.e. voice, gesture) to engage, current literature is lacking solutions to address implicit user needs. In this paper, we present an architecture to (a) detect user implicit need of help and (b) generate a set of assistive actions without prior learning. Task (a) will be performed using state-of-the-art solutions for Scene Graph Generation coupled to the use of commonsense knowledge; whereas, task (b) will be performed using additional commonsense knowledge as well as a sentiment analysis on graph structure. Finally, we propose an evaluation of our solution using established benchmarks (e.g. ActionGenome dataset) along with human experiments. The main motivation of our approach is the embedding of the perception-decision-action loop in a single architecture.

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Towards a General Deep Feature Extractor for Facial Expression Recognition

Jan 19, 2022
Liam Schoneveld, Alice Othmani

The human face conveys a significant amount of information. Through facial expressions, the face is able to communicate numerous sentiments without the need for verbalisation. Visual emotion recognition has been extensively studied. Recently several end-to-end trained deep neural networks have been proposed for this task. However, such models often lack generalisation ability across datasets. In this paper, we propose the Deep Facial Expression Vector ExtractoR (DeepFEVER), a new deep learning-based approach that learns a visual feature extractor general enough to be applied to any other facial emotion recognition task or dataset. DeepFEVER outperforms state-of-the-art results on the AffectNet and Google Facial Expression Comparison datasets. DeepFEVER's extracted features also generalise extremely well to other datasets -- even those unseen during training -- namely, the Real-World Affective Faces (RAF) dataset.

* IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), 2021, pp. 2339-2342 
* Published in: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2103.09154 

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Hierarchical Pre-training for Sequence Labelling in Spoken Dialog

Oct 03, 2020
Emile Chapuis, Pierre Colombo, Matteo Manica, Matthieu Labeau, Chloe Clavel

Sequence labelling tasks like Dialog Act and Emotion/Sentiment identification are a key component of spoken dialog systems. In this work, we propose a new approach to learn generic representations adapted to spoken dialog, which we evaluate on a new benchmark we call Sequence labellIng evaLuatIon benChmark fOr spoken laNguagE benchmark (\texttt{SILICONE}). \texttt{SILICONE} is model-agnostic and contains 10 different datasets of various sizes. We obtain our representations with a hierarchical encoder based on transformer architectures, for which we extend two well-known pre-training objectives. Pre-training is performed on OpenSubtitles: a large corpus of spoken dialog containing over $2.3$ billion of tokens. We demonstrate how hierarchical encoders achieve competitive results with consistently fewer parameters compared to state-of-the-art models and we show their importance for both pre-training and fine-tuning.

* EMNLP 2020 

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COVID-19 Pandemic: Identifying Key Issues using Social Media and Natural Language Processing

Aug 23, 2020
Oladapo Oyebode, Chinenye Ndulue, Dinesh Mulchandani, Banuchitra Suruliraj, Ashfaq Adib, Fidelia Anulika Orji, Evangelos Milios, Stan Matwin, Rita Orji

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's lives in many ways. Social media data can reveal public perceptions and experience with respect to the pandemic, and also reveal factors that hamper or support efforts to curb global spread of the disease. In this paper, we analyzed COVID-19-related comments collected from six social media platforms using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. We identified relevant opinionated keyphrases and their respective sentiment polarity (negative or positive) from over 1 million randomly selected comments, and then categorized them into broader themes using thematic analysis. Our results uncover 34 negative themes out of which 17 are economic, socio-political, educational, and political issues. 20 positive themes were also identified. We discuss the negative issues and suggest interventions to tackle them based on the positive themes and research evidence.

* 12 pages, 7 figures, 3 tables 

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The Language Interpretability Tool: Extensible, Interactive Visualizations and Analysis for NLP Models

Aug 12, 2020
Ian Tenney, James Wexler, Jasmijn Bastings, Tolga Bolukbasi, Andy Coenen, Sebastian Gehrmann, Ellen Jiang, Mahima Pushkarna, Carey Radebaugh, Emily Reif, Ann Yuan

We present the Language Interpretability Tool (LIT), an open-source platform for visualization and understanding of NLP models. We focus on core questions about model behavior: Why did my model make this prediction? When does it perform poorly? What happens under a controlled change in the input? LIT integrates local explanations, aggregate analysis, and counterfactual generation into a streamlined, browser-based interface to enable rapid exploration and error analysis. We include case studies for a diverse set of workflows, including exploring counterfactuals for sentiment analysis, measuring gender bias in coreference systems, and exploring local behavior in text generation. LIT supports a wide range of models--including classification, seq2seq, and structured prediction--and is highly extensible through a declarative, framework-agnostic API. LIT is under active development, with code and full documentation available at

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