There has been an increasing interest in inferring some personality traits from users and players in social networks and games, respectively. This goes beyond classical sentiment analysis, and also much further than customer profiling. The purpose here is to have a characterisation of users in terms of personality traits, such as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. While this is an incipient area of research, we ask the question of whether cognitive abilities, and intelligence in particular, are also measurable from user profiles. However, we pose the question as broadly as possible in terms of subjects, in the context of universal psychometrics, including humans, machines and hybrids. Namely, in this paper we analyse the following question: is it possible to measure the intelligence of humans and (non-human) bots in a social network or a game just from their user profiles, i.e., by observation, without the use of interactive tests, such as IQ tests, the Turing test or other more principled machine intelligence tests?
Some exciting new approaches to neural architectures for the analysis of conversation have been introduced over the past couple of years. These include neural architectures for detecting emotion, dialogue acts, and sentiment polarity. They take advantage of some of the key attributes of contemporary machine learning, such as recurrent neural networks with attention mechanisms and transformer-based approaches. However, while the architectures themselves are extremely promising, the phenomena they have been applied to to date are but a small part of what makes conversation engaging. In this paper we survey these neural architectures and what they have been applied to. On the basis of the social science literature, we then describe what we believe to be the most fundamental and definitional feature of conversation, which is its co-construction over time by two or more interlocutors. We discuss how neural architectures of the sort surveyed could profitably be applied to these more fundamental aspects of conversation, and what this buys us in terms of a better analysis of conversation and even, in the longer term, a better way of generating conversation for a conversational system.
While argument mining has achieved significant success in classifying argumentative relations between statements (support, attack, and neutral), we have a limited computational understanding of logical mechanisms that constitute those relations. Most recent studies rely on black-box models, which are not as linguistically insightful as desired. On the other hand, earlier studies use rather simple lexical features, missing logical relations between statements. To overcome these limitations, our work classifies argumentative relations based on four logical and theory-informed mechanisms between two statements, namely (i) factual consistency, (ii) sentiment coherence, (iii) causal relation, and (iv) normative relation. We demonstrate that our operationalization of these logical mechanisms classifies argumentative relations without directly training on data labeled with the relations, significantly better than several unsupervised baselines. We further demonstrate that these mechanisms also improve supervised classifiers through representation learning.
Citation analysis is one of the most frequently used methods in research evaluation. We are seeing significant growth in citation analysis through bibliometric metadata, primarily due to the availability of citation databases such as the Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, and Dimensions. Due to better access to full-text publication corpora in recent years, information scientists have gone far beyond traditional bibliometrics by tapping into advancements in full-text data processing techniques to measure the impact of scientific publications in contextual terms. This has led to technical developments in citation context and content analysis, citation classifications, citation sentiment analysis, citation summarisation, and citation-based recommendation. This article aims to narratively review the studies on these developments. Its primary focus is on publications that have used natural language processing and machine learning techniques to analyse citations.
We extracted information from the ACL Anthology (AA) and Google Scholar (GS) to examine trends in citations of NLP papers. We explore questions such as: how well cited are papers of different types (journal articles, conference papers, demo papers, etc.)? how well cited are papers from different areas of within NLP? etc. Notably, we show that only about 56\% of the papers in AA are cited ten or more times. CL Journal has the most cited papers, but its citation dominance has lessened in recent years. On average, long papers get almost three times as many citations as short papers; and papers on sentiment classification, anaphora resolution, and entity recognition have the highest median citations. The analyses presented here, and the associated dataset of NLP papers mapped to citations, have a number of uses including: understanding how the field is growing and quantifying the impact of different types of papers.
Log messages are now widely used in software systems. They are important for classification as millions of logs are generated each day. Most logs are unstructured which makes classification a challenge. In this paper, Deep Learning (DL) methods called Auto-LSTM, Auto-BLSTM and Auto-GRU are developed for anomaly detection and log classification. These models are used to convert unstructured log data to trained features which is suitable for classification algorithms. They are evaluated using four data sets, namely BGL, Openstack, Thunderbird and IMDB. The first three are popular log data sets while the fourth is a movie review data set which is used for sentiment classification and is used here to show that the models can be generalized to other text classification tasks. The results obtained show that Auto-LSTM, Auto-BLSTM and Auto-GRU perform better than other well-known algorithms.
Adversarial attack is carried out to reveal the vulnerability of deep neural networks. Word substitution is a class of effective adversarial textual attack method, which has been extensively explored. However, all existing studies utilize word embeddings or thesauruses to find substitutes. In this paper, we incorporate sememes, the minimum semantic units, into adversarial attack. We propose an efficient sememe-based word substitution strategy and integrate it into a genetic attack algorithm. In experiments, we employ our attack method to attack LSTM and BERT on both Chinese and English sentiment analysis as well as natural language inference benchmark datasets. Experimental results demonstrate our model achieves better attack success rates and less modification than the baseline methods based on word embedding or synonym. Furthermore, we find our attack model can bring more robustness enhancement to the target model with adversarial training.
Nowadays, Social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook, Twitter are common places where people show their opinions, sentiments and share information with others. However, some people use SNSs to post abuse and harassment threats in order to prevent other SNSs users from expressing themselves as well as seeking different opinions. To deal with this problem, SNSs have to use a lot of resources including people to clean the aforementioned content. In this paper, we propose a supervised learning model based on the ensemble method to solve the problem of detecting hate content on SNSs in order to make conversations on SNSs more effective. Our proposed model got the first place for public dashboard with 0.730 F1 macro-score and the third place with 0.584 F1 macro-score for private dashboard at the sixth international workshop on Vietnamese Language and Speech Processing 2019.
Multi-task learning (MTL) has recently contributed to learning better representations in service of various NLP tasks. MTL aims at improving the performance of a primary task, by jointly training on a secondary task. This paper introduces automated tasks, which exploit the sequential nature of the input data, as secondary tasks in an MTL model. We explore next word prediction, next character prediction, and missing word completion as potential automated tasks. Our results show that training on a primary task in parallel with a secondary automated task improves both the convergence speed and accuracy for the primary task. We suggest two methods for augmenting an existing network with automated tasks and establish better performance in topic prediction, sentiment analysis, and hashtag recommendation. Finally, we show that the MTL models can perform well on datasets that are small and colloquial by nature.
There is more to images than their objective physical content: for example, advertisements are created to persuade a viewer to take a certain action. We propose the novel problem of automatic advertisement understanding. To enable research on this problem, we create two datasets: an image dataset of 64,832 image ads, and a video dataset of 3,477 ads. Our data contains rich annotations encompassing the topic and sentiment of the ads, questions and answers describing what actions the viewer is prompted to take and the reasoning that the ad presents to persuade the viewer ("What should I do according to this ad, and why should I do it?"), and symbolic references ads make (e.g. a dove symbolizes peace). We also analyze the most common persuasive strategies ads use, and the capabilities that computer vision systems should have to understand these strategies. We present baseline classification results for several prediction tasks, including automatically answering questions about the messages of the ads.