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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Multi-Zone Unit for Recurrent Neural Networks

Nov 17, 2019
Fandong Meng, Jinchao Zhang, Yang Liu, Jie Zhou

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have been widely used to deal with sequence learning problems. The input-dependent transition function, which folds new observations into hidden states to sequentially construct fixed-length representations of arbitrary-length sequences, plays a critical role in RNNs. Based on single space composition, transition functions in existing RNNs often have difficulty in capturing complicated long-range dependencies. In this paper, we introduce a new Multi-zone Unit (MZU) for RNNs. The key idea is to design a transition function that is capable of modeling multiple space composition. The MZU consists of three components: zone generation, zone composition, and zone aggregation. Experimental results on multiple datasets of the character-level language modeling task and the aspect-based sentiment analysis task demonstrate the superiority of the MZU.

* Accepted at AAAI 2020 

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Teacher-Student Learning Paradigm for Tri-training: An Efficient Method for Unlabeled Data Exploitation

Sep 25, 2019
Yash Bhalgat, Zhe Liu, Pritam Gundecha, Jalal Mahmud, Amita Misra

Given that labeled data is expensive to obtain in real-world scenarios, many semi-supervised algorithms have explored the task of exploitation of unlabeled data. Traditional tri-training algorithm and tri-training with disagreement have shown promise in tasks where labeled data is limited. In this work, we introduce a new paradigm for tri-training, mimicking the real world teacher-student learning process. We show that the adaptive teacher-student thresholds used in the proposed method provide more control over the learning process with higher label quality. We perform evaluation on SemEval sentiment analysis task and provide comprehensive comparisons over experimental settings containing varied labeled versus unlabeled data rates. Experimental results show that our method outperforms other strong semi-supervised baselines, while requiring less number of labeled training samples.

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Evaluating Style Transfer for Text

Apr 04, 2019
Remi Mir, Bjarke Felbo, Nick Obradovich, Iyad Rahwan

Research in the area of style transfer for text is currently bottlenecked by a lack of standard evaluation practices. This paper aims to alleviate this issue by experimentally identifying best practices with a Yelp sentiment dataset. We specify three aspects of interest (style transfer intensity, content preservation, and naturalness) and show how to obtain more reliable measures of them from human evaluation than in previous work. We propose a set of metrics for automated evaluation and demonstrate that they are more strongly correlated and in agreement with human judgment: direction-corrected Earth Mover's Distance, Word Mover's Distance on style-masked texts, and adversarial classification for the respective aspects. We also show that the three examined models exhibit tradeoffs between aspects of interest, demonstrating the importance of evaluating style transfer models at specific points of their tradeoff plots. We release software with our evaluation metrics to facilitate research.

* To appear in Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics 

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Effects of padding on LSTMs and CNNs

Mar 18, 2019
Mahidhar Dwarampudi, N V Subba Reddy

Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Networks and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have become very common and are used in many fields as they were effective in solving many problems where the general neural networks were inefficient. They were applied to various problems mostly related to images and sequences. Since LSTMs and CNNs take inputs of the same length and dimension, input images and sequences are padded to maximum length while testing and training. This padding can affect the way the networks function and can make a great deal when it comes to performance and accuracies. This paper studies this and suggests the best way to pad an input sequence. This paper uses a simple sentiment analysis task for this purpose. We use the same dataset on both the networks with various padding to show the difference. This paper also discusses some preprocessing techniques done on the data to ensure effective analysis of the data.

* 5 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables 

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Multiple-Attribute Text Style Transfer

Nov 01, 2018
Sandeep Subramanian, Guillaume Lample, Eric Michael Smith, Ludovic Denoyer, Marc'Aurelio Ranzato, Y-Lan Boureau

The dominant approach to unsupervised "style transfer" in text is based on the idea of learning a latent representation, which is independent of the attributes specifying its "style". In this paper, we show that this condition is not necessary and is not always met in practice, even with domain adversarial training that explicitly aims at learning such disentangled representations. We thus propose a new model that controls several factors of variation in textual data where this condition on disentanglement is replaced with a simpler mechanism based on back-translation. Our method allows control over multiple attributes, like gender, sentiment, product type, etc., and a more fine-grained control on the trade-off between content preservation and change of style with a pooling operator in the latent space. Our experiments demonstrate that the fully entangled model produces better generations, even when tested on new and more challenging benchmarks comprising reviews with multiple sentences and multiple attributes.

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NTUA-SLP at IEST 2018: Ensemble of Neural Transfer Methods for Implicit Emotion Classification

Sep 03, 2018
Alexandra Chronopoulou, Aikaterini Margatina, Christos Baziotis, Alexandros Potamianos

In this paper we present our approach to tackle the Implicit Emotion Shared Task (IEST) organized as part of WASSA 2018 at EMNLP 2018. Given a tweet, from which a certain word has been removed, we are asked to predict the emotion of the missing word. In this work, we experiment with neural Transfer Learning (TL) methods. Our models are based on LSTM networks, augmented with a self-attention mechanism. We use the weights of various pretrained models, for initializing specific layers of our networks. We leverage a big collection of unlabeled Twitter messages, for pretraining word2vec word embeddings and a set of diverse language models. Moreover, we utilize a sentiment analysis dataset for pretraining a model, which encodes emotion related information. The submitted model consists of an ensemble of the aforementioned TL models. Our team ranked 3rd out of 30 participants, achieving an F1 score of 0.703.

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Mining Public Opinion about Economic Issues: Twitter and the U.S. Presidential Election

Feb 06, 2018
Amir Karami, London S. Bennett, Xiaoyun He

Opinion polls have been the bridge between public opinion and politicians in elections. However, developing surveys to disclose people's feedback with respect to economic issues is limited, expensive, and time-consuming. In recent years, social media such as Twitter has enabled people to share their opinions regarding elections. Social media has provided a platform for collecting a large amount of social media data. This paper proposes a computational public opinion mining approach to explore the discussion of economic issues in social media during an election. Current related studies use text mining methods independently for election analysis and election prediction; this research combines two text mining methods: sentiment analysis and topic modeling. The proposed approach has effectively been deployed on millions of tweets to analyze economic concerns of people during the 2012 US presidential election.

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Mining fine-grained opinions on closed captions of YouTube videos with an attention-RNN

Aug 08, 2017
Edison Marrese-Taylor, Jorge A. Balazs, Yutaka Matsuo

Video reviews are the natural evolution of written product reviews. In this paper we target this phenomenon and introduce the first dataset created from closed captions of YouTube product review videos as well as a new attention-RNN model for aspect extraction and joint aspect extraction and sentiment classification. Our model provides state-of-the-art performance on aspect extraction without requiring the usage of hand-crafted features on the SemEval ABSA corpus, while it outperforms the baseline on the joint task. In our dataset, the attention-RNN model outperforms the baseline for both tasks, but we observe important performance drops for all models in comparison to SemEval. These results, as well as further experiments on domain adaptation for aspect extraction, suggest that differences between speech and written text, which have been discussed extensively in the literature, also extend to the domain of product reviews, where they are relevant for fine-grained opinion mining.

* 8th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis (WASSA) 

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Bidirectional Tree-Structured LSTM with Head Lexicalization

Nov 21, 2016
Zhiyang Teng, Yue Zhang

Sequential LSTM has been extended to model tree structures, giving competitive results for a number of tasks. Existing methods model constituent trees by bottom-up combinations of constituent nodes, making direct use of input word information only for leaf nodes. This is different from sequential LSTMs, which contain reference to input words for each node. In this paper, we propose a method for automatic head-lexicalization for tree-structure LSTMs, propagating head words from leaf nodes to every constituent node. In addition, enabled by head lexicalization, we build a tree LSTM in the top-down direction, which corresponds to bidirectional sequential LSTM structurally. Experiments show that both extensions give better representations of tree structures. Our final model gives the best results on the Standford Sentiment Treebank and highly competitive results on the TREC question type classification task.

* 12 pages, 6 figures 

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Learning with Pseudo-Ensembles

Dec 16, 2014
Philip Bachman, Ouais Alsharif, Doina Precup

We formalize the notion of a pseudo-ensemble, a (possibly infinite) collection of child models spawned from a parent model by perturbing it according to some noise process. E.g., dropout (Hinton et. al, 2012) in a deep neural network trains a pseudo-ensemble of child subnetworks generated by randomly masking nodes in the parent network. We present a novel regularizer based on making the behavior of a pseudo-ensemble robust with respect to the noise process generating it. In the fully-supervised setting, our regularizer matches the performance of dropout. But, unlike dropout, our regularizer naturally extends to the semi-supervised setting, where it produces state-of-the-art results. We provide a case study in which we transform the Recursive Neural Tensor Network of (Socher et. al, 2013) into a pseudo-ensemble, which significantly improves its performance on a real-world sentiment analysis benchmark.

* To appear in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 27 (NIPS 2014), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 27, Dec. 2014 

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