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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

How Important Is a Neuron?

May 30, 2018
Kedar Dhamdhere, Mukund Sundararajan, Qiqi Yan

The problem of attributing a deep network's prediction to its \emph{input/base} features is well-studied. We introduce the notion of \emph{conductance} to extend the notion of attribution to the understanding the importance of \emph{hidden} units. Informally, the conductance of a hidden unit of a deep network is the \emph{flow} of attribution via this hidden unit. We use conductance to understand the importance of a hidden unit to the prediction for a specific input, or over a set of inputs. We evaluate the effectiveness of conductance in multiple ways, including theoretical properties, ablation studies, and a feature selection task. The empirical evaluations are done using the Inception network over ImageNet data, and a sentiment analysis network over reviews. In both cases, we demonstrate the effectiveness of conductance in identifying interesting insights about the internal workings of these networks.

* under submission 

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Aff2Vec: Affect--Enriched Distributional Word Representations

May 21, 2018
Sopan Khosla, Niyati Chhaya, Kushal Chawla

Human communication includes information, opinions, and reactions. Reactions are often captured by the affective-messages in written as well as verbal communications. While there has been work in affect modeling and to some extent affective content generation, the area of affective word distributions in not well studied. Synsets and lexica capture semantic relationships across words. These models however lack in encoding affective or emotional word interpretations. Our proposed model, Aff2Vec provides a method for enriched word embeddings that are representative of affective interpretations of words. Aff2Vec outperforms the state--of--the--art in intrinsic word-similarity tasks. Further, the use of Aff2Vec representations outperforms baseline embeddings in downstream natural language understanding tasks including sentiment analysis, personality detection, and frustration prediction.


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Double Embeddings and CNN-based Sequence Labeling for Aspect Extraction

May 11, 2018
Hu Xu, Bing Liu, Lei Shu, Philip S. Yu

One key task of fine-grained sentiment analysis of product reviews is to extract product aspects or features that users have expressed opinions on. This paper focuses on supervised aspect extraction using deep learning. Unlike other highly sophisticated supervised deep learning models, this paper proposes a novel and yet simple CNN model employing two types of pre-trained embeddings for aspect extraction: general-purpose embeddings and domain-specific embeddings. Without using any additional supervision, this model achieves surprisingly good results, outperforming state-of-the-art sophisticated existing methods. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report such double embeddings based CNN model for aspect extraction and achieve very good results.

* ACL 2018 

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Emotional Intensity analysis in Bipolar subjects

Jun 07, 2016
Facundo Carrillo, Natalia Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mariano Sigman, Guillermo Cecchi, Diego Fernandez Slezak

The massive availability of digital repositories of human thought opens radical novel way of studying the human mind. Natural language processing tools and computational models have evolved such that many mental conditions are predicted by analysing speech. Transcription of interviews and discourses are analyzed using syntactic, grammatical or sentiment analysis to infer the mental state. Here we set to investigate if classification of Bipolar and control subjects is possible. We develop the Emotion Intensity Index based on the Dictionary of Affect, and find that subjects categories are distinguishable. Using classical classification techniques we get more than 75\% of labeling performance. These results sumed to previous studies show that current automated speech analysis is capable of identifying altered mental states towards a quantitative psychiatry.

* Presented at MLINI-2015 workshop, 2015 (arXiv:cs/0101200) 

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Local Interpretations for Explainable Natural Language Processing: A Survey

Mar 20, 2021
Siwen Luo, Hamish Ivison, Caren Han, Josiah Poon

As the use of deep learning techniques has grown across various fields over the past decade, complaints about the opaqueness of the black-box models have increased, resulting in an increased focus on transparency in deep learning models. This work investigates various methods to improve the interpretability of deep neural networks for natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including machine translation and sentiment analysis. We provide a comprehensive discussion on the definition of the term \textit{interpretability} and its various aspects at the beginning of this work. The methods collected and summarised in this survey are only associated with local interpretation and are divided into three categories: 1) explaining the model's predictions through related input features; 2) explaining through natural language explanation; 3) probing the hidden states of models and word representations.

* This work is an initial draft 

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Introducing Syntactic Structures into Target Opinion Word Extraction with Deep Learning

Oct 26, 2020
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh, Nasim Nouri, Franck Dernoncourt, Dejing Dou, Thien Huu Nguyen

Targeted opinion word extraction (TOWE) is a sub-task of aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) which aims to find the opinion words for a given aspect-term in a sentence. Despite their success for TOWE, the current deep learning models fail to exploit the syntactic information of the sentences that have been proved to be useful for TOWE in the prior research. In this work, we propose to incorporate the syntactic structures of the sentences into the deep learning models for TOWE, leveraging the syntax-based opinion possibility scores and the syntactic connections between the words. We also introduce a novel regularization technique to improve the performance of the deep learning models based on the representation distinctions between the words in TOWE. The proposed model is extensively analyzed and achieves the state-of-the-art performance on four benchmark datasets.

* accepted at EMNLP 2020 main conference 

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Advances of Transformer-Based Models for News Headline Generation

Jul 09, 2020
Alexey Bukhtiyarov, Ilya Gusev

Pretrained language models based on Transformer architecture are the reason for recent breakthroughs in many areas of NLP, including sentiment analysis, question answering, named entity recognition. Headline generation is a special kind of text summarization task. Models need to have strong natural language understanding that goes beyond the meaning of individual words and sentences and an ability to distinguish essential information to succeed in it. In this paper, we fine-tune two pretrained Transformer-based models (mBART and BertSumAbs) for that task and achieve new state-of-the-art results on the RIA and Lenta datasets of Russian news. BertSumAbs increases ROUGE on average by 4.6 and 5.9 points respectively over previous best score achieved by Pointer-Generator network.

* Submitted to AINL 2020 

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Human Comprehension of Fairness in Machine Learning

Dec 17, 2019
Debjani Saha, Candice Schumann, Duncan C. McElfresh, John P. Dickerson, Michelle L. Mazurek, Michael Carl Tschantz

Bias in machine learning has manifested injustice in several areas, such as medicine, hiring, and criminal justice. In response, computer scientists have developed myriad definitions of fairness to correct this bias in fielded algorithms. While some definitions are based on established legal and ethical norms, others are largely mathematical. It is unclear whether the general public agrees with these fairness definitions, and perhaps more importantly, whether they understand these definitions. We take initial steps toward bridging this gap between ML researchers and the public, by addressing the question: does a non-technical audience understand a basic definition of ML fairness? We develop a metric to measure comprehension of one such definition--demographic parity. We validate this metric using online surveys, and study the relationship between comprehension and sentiment, demographics, and the application at hand.


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Style Transfer for Texts: Retrain, Report Errors, Compare with Rewrites

Aug 29, 2019
Alexey Tikhonov, Viacheslav Shibaev, Aleksander Nagaev, Aigul Nugmanova, Ivan P. Yamshchikov

This paper shows that standard assessment methodology for style transfer has several significant problems. First, the standard metrics for style accuracy and semantics preservation vary significantly on different re-runs. Therefore one has to report error margins for the obtained results. Second, starting with certain values of bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) between input and output and accuracy of the sentiment transfer the optimization of these two standard metrics diverge from the intuitive goal of the style transfer task. Finally, due to the nature of the task itself, there is a specific dependence between these two metrics that could be easily manipulated. Under these circumstances, we suggest taking BLEU between input and human-written reformulations into consideration for benchmarks. We also propose three new architectures that outperform state of the art in terms of this metric.


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Style Transfer for Texts: to Err is Human, but Error Margins Matter

Aug 19, 2019
Alexey Tikhonov, Viacheslav Shibaev, Aleksander Nagaev, Aigul Nugmanova, Ivan P. Yamshchikov

This paper shows that standard assessment methodology for style transfer has several significant problems. First, the standard metrics for style accuracy and semantics preservation vary significantly on different re-runs. Therefore one has to report error margins for the obtained results. Second, starting with certain values of bilingual evaluation understudy (BLEU) between input and output and accuracy of the sentiment transfer the optimization of these two standard metrics diverge from the intuitive goal of the style transfer task. Finally, due to the nature of the task itself, there is a specific dependence between these two metrics that could be easily manipulated. Under these circumstances, we suggest taking BLEU between input and human-written reformulations into consideration for benchmarks. We also propose three new architectures that outperform state of the art in terms of this metric.


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