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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Empirical evaluation of shallow and deep learning classifiers for Arabic sentiment analysis

Dec 01, 2021
Ali Bou Nassif, Abdollah Masoud Darya, Ashraf Elnagar

This work presents a detailed comparison of the performance of deep learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNN), long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent units (GRU), their hybrids, and a selection of shallow learning classifiers for sentiment analysis of Arabic reviews. Additionally, the comparison includes state-of-the-art models such as the transformer architecture and the araBERT pre-trained model. The datasets used in this study are multi-dialect Arabic hotel and book review datasets, which are some of the largest publicly available datasets for Arabic reviews. Results showed deep learning outperforming shallow learning for binary and multi-label classification, in contrast with the results of similar work reported in the literature. This discrepancy in outcome was caused by dataset size as we found it to be proportional to the performance of deep learning models. The performance of deep and shallow learning techniques was analyzed in terms of accuracy and F1 score. The best performing shallow learning technique was Random Forest followed by Decision Tree, and AdaBoost. The deep learning models performed similarly using a default embedding layer, while the transformer model performed best when augmented with araBERT.

* ACM Trans. Asian Low-Resour. Lang. Inf. Process. 21, 1, Article 14 (November 2021), 25 pages (2021) 

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Deep Learning Paradigm with Transformed Monolingual Word Embeddings for Multilingual Sentiment Analysis

Oct 10, 2017
Yujie Lu, Tatsunori Mori

The surge of social media use brings huge demand of multilingual sentiment analysis (MSA) for unveiling cultural difference. So far, traditional methods resorted to machine translation---translating texts in other languages to English, and then adopt the methods once worked in English. However, this paradigm is conditioned by the quality of machine translation. In this paper, we propose a new deep learning paradigm to assimilate the differences between languages for MSA. We first pre-train monolingual word embeddings separately, then map word embeddings in different spaces into a shared embedding space, and then finally train a parameter-sharing deep neural network for MSA. The experimental results show that our paradigm is effective. Especially, our CNN model outperforms a state-of-the-art baseline by around 2.1% in terms of classification accuracy.


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Radical-level Ideograph Encoder for RNN-based Sentiment Analysis of Chinese and Japanese

Aug 10, 2017
Yuanzhi Ke, Masafumi Hagiwara

The character vocabulary can be very large in non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese and Japanese, which makes neural network models huge to process such languages. We explored a model for sentiment classification that takes the embeddings of the radicals of the Chinese characters, i.e, hanzi of Chinese and kanji of Japanese. Our model is composed of a CNN word feature encoder and a bi-directional RNN document feature encoder. The results achieved are on par with the character embedding-based models, and close to the state-of-the-art word embedding-based models, with 90% smaller vocabulary, and at least 13% and 80% fewer parameters than the character embedding-based models and word embedding-based models respectively. The results suggest that the radical embedding-based approach is cost-effective for machine learning on Chinese and Japanese.

* 12 pages, 4 figures 

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Few-Shot Cross-Lingual Stance Detection with Sentiment-Based Pre-Training

Sep 13, 2021
Momchil Hardalov, Arnav Arora, Preslav Nakov, Isabelle Augenstein

The goal of stance detection is to determine the viewpoint expressed in a piece of text towards a target. These viewpoints or contexts are often expressed in many different languages depending on the user and the platform, which can be a local news outlet, a social media platform, a news forum, etc. Most research in stance detection, however, has been limited to working with a single language and on a few limited targets, with little work on cross-lingual stance detection. Moreover, non-English sources of labelled data are often scarce and present additional challenges. Recently, large multilingual language models have substantially improved the performance on many non-English tasks, especially such with limited numbers of examples. This highlights the importance of model pre-training and its ability to learn from few examples. In this paper, we present the most comprehensive study of cross-lingual stance detection to date: we experiment with 15 diverse datasets in 12 languages from 6 language families, and with 6 low-resource evaluation settings each. For our experiments, we build on pattern-exploiting training, proposing the addition of a novel label encoder to simplify the verbalisation procedure. We further propose sentiment-based generation of stance data for pre-training, which shows sizeable improvement of more than 6% F1 absolute in low-shot settings compared to several strong baselines.


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Deep Learning Brasil -- NLP at SemEval-2020 Task 9: Overview of Sentiment Analysis of Code-Mixed Tweets

Jul 28, 2020
Manoel Veríssimo dos Santos Neto, Ayrton Denner da Silva Amaral, Nádia Félix Felipe da Silva, Anderson da Silva Soares

In this paper, we describe a methodology to predict sentiment in code-mixed tweets (hindi-english). Our team called verissimo.manoel in CodaLab developed an approach based on an ensemble of four models (MultiFiT, BERT, ALBERT, and XLNET). The final classification algorithm was an ensemble of some predictions of all softmax values from these four models. This architecture was used and evaluated in the context of the SemEval 2020 challenge (task 9), and our system got 72.7% on the F1 score.


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Joint Aspect and Polarity Classification for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with End-to-End Neural Networks

Aug 28, 2018
Martin Schmitt, Simon Steinheber, Konrad Schreiber, Benjamin Roth

In this work, we propose a new model for aspect-based sentiment analysis. In contrast to previous approaches, we jointly model the detection of aspects and the classification of their polarity in an end-to-end trainable neural network. We conduct experiments with different neural architectures and word representations on the recent GermEval 2017 dataset. We were able to show considerable performance gains by using the joint modeling approach in all settings compared to pipeline approaches. The combination of a convolutional neural network and fasttext embeddings outperformed the best submission of the shared task in 2017, establishing a new state of the art.

* EMNLP 2018 

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Predicting The Stock Trend Using News Sentiment Analysis and Technical Indicators in Spark

Jan 19, 2022
Taylan Kabbani, Fatih Enes Usta

Predicting the stock market trend has always been challenging since its movement is affected by many factors. Here, we approach the future trend prediction problem as a machine learning classification problem by creating tomorrow_trend feature as our label to be predicted. Different features are given to help the machine learning model predict the label of a given day; whether it is an uptrend or downtrend, those features are technical indicators generated from the stock's price history. In addition, as financial news plays a vital role in changing the investor's behavior, the overall sentiment score on a given day is created from all news released on that day and added to the model as another feature. Three different machine learning models are tested in Spark (big-data computing platform), Logistic Regression, Random Forest, and Gradient Boosting Machine. Random Forest was the best performing model with a 63.58% test accuracy.

* 4 pages, 5 figures 

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Transferable End-to-End Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with Selective Adversarial Learning

Oct 31, 2019
Zheng Li, Xin Li, Ying Wei, Lidong Bing, Yu Zhang, Qiang Yang

Joint extraction of aspects and sentiments can be effectively formulated as a sequence labeling problem. However, such formulation hinders the effectiveness of supervised methods due to the lack of annotated sequence data in many domains. To address this issue, we firstly explore an unsupervised domain adaptation setting for this task. Prior work can only use common syntactic relations between aspect and opinion words to bridge the domain gaps, which highly relies on external linguistic resources. To resolve it, we propose a novel Selective Adversarial Learning (SAL) method to align the inferred correlation vectors that automatically capture their latent relations. The SAL method can dynamically learn an alignment weight for each word such that more important words can possess higher alignment weights to achieve fine-grained (word-level) adaptation. Empirically, extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAL method.


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Syntax-Aware Aspect-Level Sentiment Classification with Proximity-Weighted Convolution Network

Sep 23, 2019
Chen Zhang, Qiuchi Li, Dawei Song

It has been widely accepted that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network, coupled with attention mechanism and memory module, is useful for aspect-level sentiment classification. However, existing approaches largely rely on the modelling of semantic relatedness of an aspect with its context words, while to some extent ignore their syntactic dependencies within sentences. Consequently, this may lead to an undesirable result that the aspect attends on contextual words that are descriptive of other aspects. In this paper, we propose a proximity-weighted convolution network to offer an aspect-specific syntax-aware representation of contexts. In particular, two ways of determining proximity weight are explored, namely position proximity and dependency proximity. The representation is primarily abstracted by a bidirectional LSTM architecture and further enhanced by a proximity-weighted convolution. Experiments conducted on the SemEval 2014 benchmark demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach compared with a range of state-of-the-art models.

* 4 pages, 2 figures, SIGIR 2019 (Short) 

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A literature survey on student feedback assessment tools and their usage in sentiment analysis

Sep 09, 2021
Himali Aryal

Online learning is becoming increasingly popular, whether for convenience, to accommodate work hours, or simply to have the freedom to study from anywhere. Especially, during the Covid-19 pandemic, it has become the only viable option for learning. The effectiveness of teaching various hard-core programming courses with a mix of theoretical content is determined by the student interaction and responses. In contrast to a digital lecture through Zoom or Teams, a lecturer may rapidly acquire such responses from students' facial expressions, behavior, and attitude in a physical session, even if the listener is largely idle and non-interactive. However, student assessment in virtual learning is a challenging task. Despite the challenges, different technologies are progressively being integrated into teaching environments to boost student engagement and motivation. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of various in-class feedback assessment methods such as Kahoot!, Mentimeter, Padlet, and polling to assist a lecturer in obtaining real-time feedback from students throughout a session and adapting the teaching style accordingly. Furthermore, some of the topics covered by student suggestions include tutor suggestions, enhancing teaching style, course content, and other subjects. Any input gives the instructor valuable insight into how to improve the student's learning experience, however, manually going through all of the qualitative comments and extracting the ideas is tedious. Thus, in this paper, we propose a sentiment analysis model for extracting the explicit suggestions from the students' qualitative feedback comments.


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