Recent approaches for sentiment lexicon induction have capitalized on pre-trained word embeddings that capture latent semantic properties. However, embeddings obtained by optimizing performance of a given task (e.g. predicting contextual words) are sub-optimal for other applications. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting task-specific representations, induced via embedding sub-space projection. This allows us to expand lexicons describing multiple semantic properties. For each property, our model jointly learns suitable representations and the concomitant predictor. Experiments conducted over multiple subjective lexicons, show that our model outperforms previous work and other baselines; even in low training data regimes. Furthermore, lexicon-based sentiment classifiers built on top of our lexicons outperform similar resources and yield performances comparable to those of supervised models.
NLP models are shown to suffer from robustness issues, i.e., a model's prediction can be easily changed under small perturbations to the input. In this work, we present a Controlled Adversarial Text Generation (CAT-Gen) model that, given an input text, generates adversarial texts through controllable attributes that are known to be invariant to task labels. For example, in order to attack a model for sentiment classification over product reviews, we can use the product categories as the controllable attribute which would not change the sentiment of the reviews. Experiments on real-world NLP datasets demonstrate that our method can generate more diverse and fluent adversarial texts, compared to many existing adversarial text generation approaches. We further use our generated adversarial examples to improve models through adversarial training, and we demonstrate that our generated attacks are more robust against model re-training and different model architectures.
In this article, we describe the system that we used for the memotion analysis challenge, which is Task 8 of SemEval-2020. This challenge had three subtasks where affect based sentiment classification of the memes was required along with intensities. The system we proposed combines the three tasks into a single one by representing it as multi-label hierarchical classification problem.Here,Multi-Task learning or Joint learning Procedure is used to train our model.We have used dual channels to extract text and image based features from separate Deep Neural Network Backbone and aggregate them to create task specific features. These task specific aggregated feature vectors ware then passed on to smaller networks with dense layers, each one assigned for predicting one type of fine grain sentiment label. Our Proposed method show the superiority of this system in few tasks to other best models from the challenge.
We present a systematic study of biases in natural language generation (NLG) by analyzing text generated from prompts that contain mentions of different demographic groups. In this work, we introduce the notion of the regard towards a demographic, use the varying levels of regard towards different demographics as a defining metric for bias in NLG, and analyze the extent to which sentiment scores are a relevant proxy metric for regard. To this end, we collect strategically-generated text from language models and manually annotate the text with both sentiment and regard scores. Additionally, we build an automatic regard classifier through transfer learning, so that we can analyze biases in unseen text. Together, these methods reveal the extent of the biased nature of language model generations. Our analysis provides a study of biases in NLG, bias metrics and correlated human judgments, and empirical evidence on the usefulness of our annotated dataset.
The ability to accurately represent sentences is central to language understanding. We describe a convolutional architecture dubbed the Dynamic Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) that we adopt for the semantic modelling of sentences. The network uses Dynamic k-Max Pooling, a global pooling operation over linear sequences. The network handles input sentences of varying length and induces a feature graph over the sentence that is capable of explicitly capturing short and long-range relations. The network does not rely on a parse tree and is easily applicable to any language. We test the DCNN in four experiments: small scale binary and multi-class sentiment prediction, six-way question classification and Twitter sentiment prediction by distant supervision. The network achieves excellent performance in the first three tasks and a greater than 25% error reduction in the last task with respect to the strongest baseline.
The predictions of text classifiers are often driven by spurious correlations -- e.g., the term `Spielberg' correlates with positively reviewed movies, even though the term itself does not semantically convey a positive sentiment. In this paper, we propose a method to distinguish spurious and genuine correlations in text classification. We treat this as a supervised classification problem, using features derived from treatment effect estimators to distinguish spurious correlations from "genuine" ones. Due to the generic nature of these features and their small dimensionality, we find that the approach works well even with limited training examples, and that it is possible to transport the word classifier to new domains. Experiments on four datasets (sentiment classification and toxicity detection) suggest that using this approach to inform feature selection also leads to more robust classification, as measured by improved worst-case accuracy on the samples affected by spurious correlations.
The paper introduces methods of adaptation of multilingual masked language models for a specific language. Pre-trained bidirectional language models show state-of-the-art performance on a wide range of tasks including reading comprehension, natural language inference, and sentiment analysis. At the moment there are two alternative approaches to train such models: monolingual and multilingual. While language specific models show superior performance, multilingual models allow to perform a transfer from one language to another and solve tasks for different languages simultaneously. This work shows that transfer learning from a multilingual model to monolingual model results in significant growth of performance on such tasks as reading comprehension, paraphrase detection, and sentiment analysis. Furthermore, multilingual initialization of monolingual model substantially reduces training time. Pre-trained models for the Russian language are open sourced.
Sarcasm detection is a key task for many natural language processing tasks. In sentiment analysis, for example, sarcasm can flip the polarity of an "apparently positive" sentence and, hence, negatively affect polarity detection performance. To date, most approaches to sarcasm detection have treated the task primarily as a text categorization problem. Sarcasm, however, can be expressed in very subtle ways and requires a deeper understanding of natural language that standard text categorization techniques cannot grasp. In this work, we develop models based on a pre-trained convolutional neural network for extracting sentiment, emotion and personality features for sarcasm detection. Such features, along with the network's baseline features, allow the proposed models to outperform the state of the art on benchmark datasets. We also address the often ignored generalizability issue of classifying data that have not been seen by the models at learning phase.
A growing number of people are changing the way they consume news, replacing the traditional physical newspapers and magazines by their virtual online versions or/and weblogs. The interactivity and immediacy present in online news are changing the way news are being produced and exposed by media corporations. News websites have to create effective strategies to catch people's attention and attract their clicks. In this paper we investigate possible strategies used by online news corporations in the design of their news headlines. We analyze the content of 69,907 headlines produced by four major global media corporations during a minimum of eight consecutive months in 2014. In order to discover strategies that could be used to attract clicks, we extracted features from the text of the news headlines related to the sentiment polarity of the headline. We discovered that the sentiment of the headline is strongly related to the popularity of the news and also with the dynamics of the posted comments on that particular news.
A pre-trained language model, BERT, has brought significant performance improvements across a range of natural language processing tasks. Since the model is trained on a large corpus of diverse topics, it shows robust performance for domain shift problems in which data distributions at training (source data) and testing (target data) differ while sharing similarities. Despite its great improvements compared to previous models, it still suffers from performance degradation due to domain shifts. To mitigate such problems, we propose a simple but effective unsupervised domain adaptation method, adversarial adaptation with distillation (AAD), which combines the adversarial discriminative domain adaptation (ADDA) framework with knowledge distillation. We evaluate our approach in the task of cross-domain sentiment classification on 30 domain pairs, advancing the state-of-the-art performance for unsupervised domain adaptation in text sentiment classification.