In this paper, we present our approach for sentiment classification on Spanish-English code-mixed social media data in the SemEval-2020 Task 9. We investigate performance of various pre-trained Transformer models by using different fine-tuning strategies. We explore both monolingual and multilingual models with the standard fine-tuning method. Additionally, we propose a custom model that we fine-tune in two steps: once with a language modeling objective, and once with a task-specific objective. Although two-step fine-tuning improves sentiment classification performance over the base model, the large multilingual XLM-RoBERTa model achieves best weighted F1-score with 0.537 on development data and 0.739 on test data. With this score, our team jupitter placed tenth overall in the competition.
We present OpinionDigest, an abstractive opinion summarization framework, which does not rely on gold-standard summaries for training. The framework uses an Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis model to extract opinion phrases from reviews, and trains a Transformer model to reconstruct the original reviews from these extractions. At summarization time, we merge extractions from multiple reviews and select the most popular ones. The selected opinions are used as input to the trained Transformer model, which verbalizes them into an opinion summary. OpinionDigest can also generate customized summaries, tailored to specific user needs, by filtering the selected opinions according to their aspect and/or sentiment. Automatic evaluation on Yelp data shows that our framework outperforms competitive baselines. Human studies on two corpora verify that OpinionDigest produces informative summaries and shows promising customization capabilities.
Computer vision has benefited from initializing multiple deep layers with weights pretrained on large supervised training sets like ImageNet. Natural language processing (NLP) typically sees initialization of only the lowest layer of deep models with pretrained word vectors. In this paper, we use a deep LSTM encoder from an attentional sequence-to-sequence model trained for machine translation (MT) to contextualize word vectors. We show that adding these context vectors (CoVe) improves performance over using only unsupervised word and character vectors on a wide variety of common NLP tasks: sentiment analysis (SST, IMDb), question classification (TREC), entailment (SNLI), and question answering (SQuAD). For fine-grained sentiment analysis and entailment, CoVe improves performance of our baseline models to the state of the art.
Recommender systems nowadays are playing an important role in the delivery of services and information to users. Sentiment analysis (also known as opinion mining) is the process of determining the attitude of textual opinions, whether they are positive, negative or neutral. Data sparsity is representing a big issue for recommender systems because of the insufficiency of user rating or absence of data about users or items. This research proposed a hybrid approach combining sentiment analysis and recommender systems to tackle the problem of data sparsity problems by predicting the rating of products from users reviews using text mining and NLP techniques. This research focuses especially on Arabic reviews, where the model is evaluated using Opinion Corpus for Arabic (OCA) dataset. Our system was efficient, and it showed a good accuracy of nearly 85 percent in predicting rating from reviews
Large language models benefit from training with a large amount of unlabeled text, which gives them increasingly fluent and diverse generation capabilities. However, using these models for text generation that takes into account target attributes, such as sentiment polarity or specific topics, remains a challenge. We propose a simple and flexible method for controlling text generation by aligning disentangled attribute representations. In contrast to recent efforts on training a discriminator to perturb the token level distribution for an attribute, we use the same data to learn an alignment function to guide the pre-trained, non-controlled language model to generate texts with the target attribute without changing the original language model parameters. We evaluate our method on sentiment- and topic-controlled generation, and show large performance gains over previous methods while retaining fluency and diversity.
We present some results concerning the dialogue behavior and inferred sentiment of a group of older adults interacting with a computer-based avatar. Our avatar is unique in its ability to hold natural dialogues on a wide range of everyday topics---27 topics in three groups, developed with the help of gerontologists. The three groups vary in ``degrees of intimacy", and as such in degrees of difficulty for the user. Each participant interacted with the avatar for 7-9 sessions over a period of 3-4 weeks; analysis of the dialogues reveals correlations such as greater verbosity for more difficult topics, increasing verbosity with successive sessions, especially for more difficult topics, stronger sentiment on topics concerned with life goals rather than routine activities, and stronger self-disclosure for more intimate topics. In addition to their intrinsic interest, these results also reflect positively on the sophistication of our dialogue system.
The driving force behind the recent success of LSTMs has been their ability to learn complex and non-linear relationships. Consequently, our inability to describe these relationships has led to LSTMs being characterized as black boxes. To this end, we introduce contextual decomposition (CD), an interpretation algorithm for analysing individual predictions made by standard LSTMs, without any changes to the underlying model. By decomposing the output of a LSTM, CD captures the contributions of combinations of words or variables to the final prediction of an LSTM. On the task of sentiment analysis with the Yelp and SST data sets, we show that CD is able to reliably identify words and phrases of contrasting sentiment, and how they are combined to yield the LSTM's final prediction. Using the phrase-level labels in SST, we also demonstrate that CD is able to successfully extract positive and negative negations from an LSTM, something which has not previously been done.
Recent approaches for sentiment lexicon induction have capitalized on pre-trained word embeddings that capture latent semantic properties. However, embeddings obtained by optimizing performance of a given task (e.g. predicting contextual words) are sub-optimal for other applications. In this paper, we address this problem by exploiting task-specific representations, induced via embedding sub-space projection. This allows us to expand lexicons describing multiple semantic properties. For each property, our model jointly learns suitable representations and the concomitant predictor. Experiments conducted over multiple subjective lexicons, show that our model outperforms previous work and other baselines; even in low training data regimes. Furthermore, lexicon-based sentiment classifiers built on top of our lexicons outperform similar resources and yield performances comparable to those of supervised models.
NLP models are shown to suffer from robustness issues, i.e., a model's prediction can be easily changed under small perturbations to the input. In this work, we present a Controlled Adversarial Text Generation (CAT-Gen) model that, given an input text, generates adversarial texts through controllable attributes that are known to be invariant to task labels. For example, in order to attack a model for sentiment classification over product reviews, we can use the product categories as the controllable attribute which would not change the sentiment of the reviews. Experiments on real-world NLP datasets demonstrate that our method can generate more diverse and fluent adversarial texts, compared to many existing adversarial text generation approaches. We further use our generated adversarial examples to improve models through adversarial training, and we demonstrate that our generated attacks are more robust against model re-training and different model architectures.