Recent years have seen a rise in interest for cross-lingual transfer between languages with similar typology, and between languages of various scripts. However, the interplay between language similarity and difference in script on cross-lingual transfer is a less studied problem. We explore this interplay on cross-lingual transfer for two supervised tasks, namely part-of-speech tagging and sentiment analysis. We introduce a newly annotated corpus of Algerian user-generated comments comprising parallel annotations of Algerian written in Latin, Arabic, and code-switched scripts, as well as annotations for sentiment and topic categories. We perform baseline experiments by fine-tuning multi-lingual language models. We further explore the effect of script vs. language similarity in cross-lingual transfer by fine-tuning multi-lingual models on languages which are a) typologically distinct, but use the same script, b) typologically similar, but use a distinct script, or c) are typologically similar and use the same script. We find there is a delicate relationship between script and typology for part-of-speech, while sentiment analysis is less sensitive.
Recent years have seen a rise in interest for cross-lingual transfer between languages with similar typology, and between languages of various scripts. However, the interplay between morphological typology and difference in script on cross-lingual transfer is a less studied problem. We explore this interplay on cross-lingual transfer for two supervised tasks, namely part-of-speech tagging and sentiment analysis. We introduce a newly annotated corpus of Algerian user-generated comments comprising parallel annotations of Algerian written in Latin, Arabic, and code-switched scripts, as well as annotations for sentiment and topic categories. We perform baseline experiments by fine-tuning multi-lingual language models. We further explore the effect of script vs. morphological typology in cross-lingual transfer by fine-tuning multi-lingual models on languages which are a) morphologically distinct, but use the same script, b) morphologically similar, but use a distinct script, or c) are morphologically similar and use the same script. We find there is a delicate relationship between script and typology for part-of-speech, while sentiment analysis is less sensitive.
Increasingly, critical decisions in public policy, governance, and business strategy rely on a deeper understanding of the needs and opinions of constituent members (e.g. citizens, shareholders). While it has become easier to collect a large number of opinions on a topic, there is a necessity for automated tools to help navigate the space of opinions. In such contexts understanding and quantifying the similarity between opinions is key. We find that measures based solely on text similarity or on overall sentiment often fail to effectively capture the distance between opinions. Thus, we propose a new distance measure for capturing the similarity between opinions that leverages the nuanced observation -- similar opinions express similar sentiment polarity on specific relevant entities-of-interest. Specifically, in an unsupervised setting, our distance measure achieves significantly better Adjusted Rand Index scores (up to 56x) and Silhouette coefficients (up to 21x) compared to existing approaches. Similarly, in a supervised setting, our opinion distance measure achieves considerably better accuracy (up to 20% increase) compared to extant approaches that rely on text similarity, stance similarity, and sentiment similarity
The e-commerce has started a new trend in natural language processing through sentiment analysis of user-generated reviews. Different consumers have different concerns about various aspects of a specific product or service. Aspect category detection, as a subtask of aspect-based sentiment analysis, tackles the problem of categorizing a given review sentence into a set of pre-defined aspect categories. In recent years, deep learning approaches have brought revolutionary advances in multiple branches of natural language processing including sentiment analysis. In this paper, we propose a deep neural network method based on attention mechanism to identify different aspect categories of a given review sentence. Our model utilizes several attentions with different topic contexts, enabling it to attend to different parts of a review sentence based on different topics. Experimental results on two datasets in the restaurant domain released by SemEval workshop demonstrates that our approach outperforms existing methods on both datasets. Visualization of the topic attention weights shows the effectiveness of our model in identifying words related to different topics.
Rapid increase in internet users along with growing power of online review sites and social media has given birth to sentiment analysis or opinion mining, which aims at determining what other people think and comment. Sentiments or Opinions contain public generated content about products, services, policies and politics. People are usually interested to seek positive and negative opinions containing likes and dislikes, shared by users for features of particular product or service. This paper proposed sentence-level lexical based domain independent sentiment classification method for different types of data such as reviews and blogs. The proposed method is based on general lexicons i.e. WordNet, SentiWordNet and user defined lexical dictionaries for semantic orientation. The relations and glosses of these dictionaries provide solution to the domain portability problem. The method performs better than word and text level corpus based machine learning methods for semantic orientation. The results show the proposed method performs better as it shows precision of 87% and83% at document and sentence levels respectively for online comments.
Deep learning systems thrive on abundance of labeled training data but such data is not always available, calling for alternative methods of supervision. One such method is expectation regularization (XR) (Mann and McCallum, 2007), where models are trained based on expected label proportions. We propose a novel application of the XR framework for transfer learning between related tasks, where knowing the labels of task A provides an estimation of the label proportion of task B. We then use a model trained for A to label a large corpus, and use this corpus with an XR loss to train a model for task B. To make the XR framework applicable to large-scale deep-learning setups, we propose a stochastic batched approximation procedure. We demonstrate the approach on the task of Aspect-based Sentiment classification, where we effectively use a sentence-level sentiment predictor to train accurate aspect-based predictor. The method improves upon fully supervised neural system trained on aspect-level data, and is also cumulative with LM-based pretraining, as we demonstrate by improving a BERT-based Aspect-based Sentiment model.
Research shows that natural language processing models are generally considered to be vulnerable to adversarial attacks; but recent work has drawn attention to the issue of validating these adversarial inputs against certain criteria (e.g., the preservation of semantics and grammaticality). Enforcing constraints to uphold such criteria may render attacks unsuccessful, raising the question of whether valid attacks are actually feasible. In this work, we investigate this through the lens of human language ability. We report on crowdsourcing studies in which we task humans with iteratively modifying words in an input text, while receiving immediate model feedback, with the aim of causing a sentiment classification model to misclassify the example. Our findings suggest that humans are capable of generating a substantial amount of adversarial examples using semantics-preserving word substitutions. We analyze how human-generated adversarial examples compare to the recently proposed TextFooler, Genetic, BAE and SememePSO attack algorithms on the dimensions naturalness, preservation of sentiment, grammaticality and substitution rate. Our findings suggest that human-generated adversarial examples are not more able than the best algorithms to generate natural-reading, sentiment-preserving examples, though they do so by being much more computationally efficient.
Human communication is often executed in the form of a narrative, an account of connected events composed of characters, actions, and settings. A coherent narrative structure is therefore a requisite for a well-formulated narrative -- be it fictional or nonfictional -- for informative and effective communication, opening up the possibility of a deeper understanding of a narrative by studying its structural properties. In this paper we present a network-based framework for modeling and analyzing the structure of a narrative, which is further expanded by incorporating methods from computational linguistics to utilize the narrative text. Modeling a narrative as a dynamically unfolding system, we characterize its progression via the growth patterns of the character network, and use sentiment analysis and topic modeling to represent the actual content of the narrative in the form of interaction maps between characters with associated sentiment values and keywords. This is a network framework advanced beyond the simple occurrence-based one most often used until now, allowing one to utilize the unique characteristics of a given narrative to a high degree. Given the ubiquity and importance of narratives, such advanced network-based representation and analysis framework may lead to a more systematic modeling and understanding of narratives for social interactions, expression of human sentiments, and communication.
With the spread and development of new epidemics, it is of great reference value to identify the changing trends of epidemics in public emotions. We designed and implemented the COVID-19 public opinion monitoring system based on time series thermal new word mining. A new word structure discovery scheme based on the timing explosion of network topics and a Chinese sentiment analysis method for the COVID-19 public opinion environment is proposed. Establish a "Scrapy-Redis-Bloomfilter" distributed crawler framework to collect data. The system can judge the positive and negative emotions of the reviewer based on the comments, and can also reflect the depth of the seven emotions such as Hopeful, Happy, and Depressed. Finally, we improved the sentiment discriminant model of this system and compared the sentiment discriminant error of COVID-19 related comments with the Jiagu deep learning model. The results show that our model has better generalization ability and smaller discriminant error. We designed a large data visualization screen, which can clearly show the trend of public emotions, the proportion of various emotion categories, keywords, hot topics, etc., and fully and intuitively reflect the development of public opinion.