Sarcasm detection is the task of identifying irony containing utterances in sentiment-bearing text. However, the figurative and creative nature of sarcasm poses a great challenge for affective computing systems performing sentiment analysis. This article compiles and reviews the salient work in the literature of automatic sarcasm detection. Thus far, three main paradigm shifts have occurred in the way researchers have approached this task: 1) semi-supervised pattern extraction to identify implicit sentiment, 2) use of hashtag-based supervision, and 3) incorporation of context beyond target text. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the datasets, approaches, trends, and issues in sarcasm and irony detection.
TV serials are a popular source of entertainment. The ongoing COVID19 lockdown has a high probability of degrading the publics mental health. The Government of India started the retelecast of yesteryears popular TV serials on public broadcaster Doordarshan from 28th March 2020 to 31st July 2020. Tweets corresponding to the Doordarshan hashtag were mined to create a dataset. The experiment aims to analyze the publics response to the retelecast of TV serials by calculating the sentiment score of the tweet dataset. Datasets mean sentiment score of 0.65 and high share 64.58% of positive tweets signifies the acceptance of Doordarshans retelecast decision. The sentiment analysis result also reflects the positive state of mind of the public.
Extracting moral sentiment from text is a vital component in understanding public opinion, social movements, and policy decisions. The Moral Foundation Theory identifies five moral foundations, each associated with a positive and negative polarity. However, moral sentiment is often motivated by its targets, which can correspond to individuals or collective entities. In this paper, we introduce morality frames, a representation framework for organizing moral attitudes directed at different entities, and come up with a novel and high-quality annotated dataset of tweets written by US politicians. Then, we propose a relational learning model to predict moral attitudes towards entities and moral foundations jointly. We do qualitative and quantitative evaluations, showing that moral sentiment towards entities differs highly across political ideologies.
In this paper, we propose an extension to graph-based sentiment lexicon induction methods by incorporating distributed and semantic word representations in building the similarity graph to expand a three-dimensional sentiment lexicon. We also implemented and evaluated the label propagation using four different word representations and similarity metrics. Our comprehensive evaluation of the four approaches was performed on a single data set, demonstrating that all four methods can generate a significant number of new sentiment assignments with high accuracy. The highest correlations (tau=0.51) and the lowest error (mean absolute error < 1.1%), obtained by combining both the semantic and the distributional features, outperformed the distributional-based and semantic-based label-propagation models and approached a supervised algorithm.
The impact of real world events on fictional media is particularly apparent in the American cartoon series The Simpsons. While there are often very direct pop culture references evident in the dialogue and visual gags of the show, subtle changes in tone or sentiment may not be so obvious. Our aim was to use Natural Language Processing to attempt to search for changes in word frequency, topic, and sentiment before and after the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York. No clear trend change was seen, there was a slight decrease in the average sentiment over time around the relevant period between 2000 and 2002, but the scripts still maintained an overall positive value, indicating that the comedic nature of The Simpsons did not wane particularly significantly. The exploration of other social issues and even specific character statistics is needed to bolster the findings here.
Multi-party dialogues are common in enterprise social media on technical as well as non-technical topics. The outcome of a conversation may be positive or negative. It is important to analyze why a dialogue ends with a particular sentiment from the point of view of conflict analysis as well as future collaboration design. We propose an explainable time series mining algorithm for such analysis. A dialogue is represented as an attributed time series of occurrences of keywords, EMPATH categories, and inferred sentiments at various points in its progress. A special decision tree, with decision metrics that take into account temporal relationships between dialogue events, is used for predicting the cause of the outcome sentiment. Interpretable rules mined from the classifier are used to explain the prediction. Experimental results are presented for the enterprise social media posts in a large company.
Recent technological advancements in the Internet and Social media usage have resulted in the evolution of faster and efficient platforms of communication. These platforms include visual, textual and speech mediums and have brought a unique social phenomenon called Internet memes. Internet memes are in the form of images with witty, catchy, or sarcastic text descriptions. In this paper, we present a multi-modal sentiment analysis system using deep neural networks combining Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing. Our aim is different than the normal sentiment analysis goal of predicting whether a text expresses positive or negative sentiment; instead, we aim to classify the Internet meme as a positive, negative, or neutral, identify the type of humor expressed and quantify the extent to which a particular effect is being expressed. Our system has been developed using CNN and LSTM and outperformed the baseline score.
Sentiment transfer is one popular example of a text style transfer task, where the goal is to reverse the sentiment polarity of a text. With a sentiment reversal comes also a reversal in meaning. We introduce a different but related task called positive reframing in which we neutralize a negative point of view and generate a more positive perspective for the author without contradicting the original meaning. Our insistence on meaning preservation makes positive reframing a challenging and semantically rich task. To facilitate rapid progress, we introduce a large-scale benchmark, Positive Psychology Frames, with 8,349 sentence pairs and 12,755 structured annotations to explain positive reframing in terms of six theoretically-motivated reframing strategies. Then we evaluate a set of state-of-the-art text style transfer models, and conclude by discussing key challenges and directions for future work.
The growth of social media has encouraged the written use of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), which has traditionally been used only in oral contexts. However, NLP models have historically been developed using dominant English varieties, such as Standard American English (SAE), due to text corpora availability. We investigate the performance of GPT-2 on AAVE text by creating a dataset of intent-equivalent parallel AAVE/SAE tweet pairs, thereby isolating syntactic structure and AAVE- or SAE-specific language for each pair. We evaluate each sample and its GPT-2 generated text with pretrained sentiment classifiers and find that while AAVE text results in more classifications of negative sentiment than SAE, the use of GPT-2 generally increases occurrences of positive sentiment for both. Additionally, we conduct human evaluation of AAVE and SAE text generated with GPT-2 to compare contextual rigor and overall quality.