Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) has been prominent and ongoing research over many different domains, but it is not widely discussed in the legal domain. A number of publicly available datasets for a wide range of domains usually fulfill the needs of researchers to perform their studies in the field of ABSA. To the best of our knowledge, there is no publicly available dataset for the Aspect (Party) Based Sentiment Analysis for legal opinion texts. Therefore, creating a publicly available dataset for the research of ABSA for the legal domain can be considered as a task with significant importance. In this study, we introduce a manually annotated legal opinion text dataset (SigmaLaw-ABSA) intended towards facilitating researchers for ABSA tasks in the legal domain. SigmaLaw-ABSA consists of legal opinion texts in the English language which have been annotated by human judges. This study discusses the sub-tasks of ABSA relevant to the legal domain and how to use the dataset to perform them. This paper also describes the statistics of the dataset and as a baseline, we present some results on the performance of some existing deep learning based systems on the SigmaLaw-ABSA dataset.
We report results of a comparison of the accuracy of crowdworkers and seven NaturalLanguage Processing (NLP) toolkits in solving two important NLP tasks, named-entity recognition (NER) and entity-level sentiment(ELS) analysis. We here focus on a challenging dataset, 1,000 political tweets that were collected during the U.S. presidential primary election in February 2016. Each tweet refers to at least one of four presidential candidates,i.e., four named entities. The groundtruth, established by experts in political communication, has entity-level sentiment information for each candidate mentioned in the tweet. We tested several commercial and open-source tools. Our experiments show that, for our dataset of political tweets, the most accurate NER system, Google Cloud NL, performed almost on par with crowdworkers, but the most accurate ELS analysis system, TensiStrength, did not match the accuracy of crowdworkers by a large margin of more than 30 percent points.
As the first step to model emotional state of a person, we build sentiment analysis models with existing deep neural network algorithms and compare the models with psychological measurements to enlighten the relationship. In the experiments, we first examined psychological state of 64 participants and asked them to summarize the story of a book, Chronicle of a Death Foretold (Marquez, 1981). Secondly, we trained models using crawled 365,802 movie review data; then we evaluated participants' summaries using the pretrained model as a concept of transfer learning. With the background that emotion affects on memories, we investigated the relationship between the evaluation score of the summaries from computational models and the examined psychological measurements. The result shows that although CNN performed the best among other deep neural network algorithms (LSTM, GRU), its results are not related to the psychological state. Rather, GRU shows more explainable results depending on the psychological state. The contribution of this paper can be summarized as follows: (1) we enlighten the relationship between computational models and psychological measurements. (2) we suggest this framework as objective methods to evaluate the emotion; the real sentiment analysis of a person.
Identification of user's opinions from natural language text has become an exciting field of research due to its growing applications in the real world. The research field is known as sentiment analysis and classification, where aspect category detection (ACD) and aspect category polarity (ACP) are two important sub-tasks of aspect-based sentiment analysis. The goal in ACD is to specify which aspect of the entity comes up in opinion while ACP aims to specify the polarity of each aspect category from the ACD task. The previous works mostly propose separate solutions for these two sub-tasks. This paper focuses on the ACD and ACP sub-tasks to solve both problems simultaneously. The proposed method carries out multi-label classification where four different deep models were employed and comparatively evaluated to examine their performance. A dataset of Persian reviews was collected from CinemaTicket website including 2200 samples from 14 categories. The developed models were evaluated using the collected dataset in terms of example-based and label-based metrics. The results indicate the high applicability and preference of the CNN and GRU models in comparison to LSTM and Bi-LSTM.
Sentiment analysis of social media posts and comments for various marketing and emotional purposes is gaining recognition. With the increasing presence of code-mixed content in various native languages, there is a need for ardent research to produce promising results. This research paper bestows a tiny contribution to this research in the form of sentiment analysis of code-mixed social media comments in the popular Dravidian languages Kannada, Tamil and Malayalam. It describes the work for the shared task conducted by Dravidian-CodeMix at FIRE 2021 by employing pre-trained models like ULMFiT and multilingual BERT fine-tuned on the code-mixed dataset, transliteration (TRAI) of the same, English translations (TRAA) of the TRAI data and the combination of all the three. The results are recorded in this research paper where the best models stood 4th, 5th and 10th ranks in the Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam tasks respectively.
User reviews have an essential role in the success of the developed mobile apps. User reviews in the textual form are unstructured data, creating a very high complexity when processed for sentiment analysis. Previous approaches that have been used often ignore the context of reviews. In addition, the relatively small data makes the model overfitting. A new approach, BERT, has been introduced as a transfer learning model with a pre-trained model that has previously been trained to have a better context representation. This study examines the effectiveness of fine-tuning BERT for sentiment analysis using two different pre-trained models. Besides the multilingual pre-trained model, we use the pre-trained model that only has been trained in Indonesian. The dataset used is Indonesian user reviews of the ten best apps in 2020 in Google Play sites. We also perform hyper-parameter tuning to find the optimum trained model. Two training data labeling approaches were also tested to determine the effectiveness of the model, which is score-based and lexicon-based. The experimental results show that pre-trained models trained in Indonesian have better average accuracy on lexicon-based data. The pre-trained Indonesian model highest accuracy is 84%, with 25 epochs and a training time of 24 minutes. These results are better than all of the machine learning and multilingual pre-trained models.
Sentiment Analysis and Emotion Detection in conversation is key in a number of real-world applications, with different applications leveraging different kinds of data to be able to achieve reasonably accurate predictions. Multimodal Emotion Detection and Sentiment Analysis can be particularly useful as applications will be able to use specific subsets of the available modalities, as per their available data, to be able to produce relevant predictions. Current systems dealing with Multimodal functionality fail to leverage and capture the context of the conversation through all modalities, the current speaker and listener(s) in the conversation, and the relevance and relationship between the available modalities through an adequate fusion mechanism. In this paper, we propose a recurrent neural network architecture that attempts to take into account all the mentioned drawbacks, and keeps track of the context of the conversation, interlocutor states, and the emotions conveyed by the speakers in the conversation. Our proposed model out performs the state of the art on two benchmark datasets on a variety of accuracy and regression metrics.
Remembering an event is affected by personal emotional status. We examined the psychological status and personal factors; depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression, Radloff, 1977), present affective (Positive Affective and Negative Affective Schedule, Watson et al., 1988), life orient (Life Orient Test, Scheier & Carver, 1985), self-awareness (Core Self Evaluation Scale, Judge et al., 2003), and social factor (Social Support, Sarason et al., 1983) of undergraduate students (N=64) and got summaries of a story, Chronicle of a Death Foretold (Gabriel Garcia Marquez, 1981) from them. We implement a sentimental analysis model based on convolutional neural network (LeCun & Bengio, 1995) to evaluate each summary. From the same vein used for transfer learning (Pan & Yang, 2010), we collected 38,265 movie review data to train the model and then use them to score summaries of each student. The results of CES-D and PANAS show the relationship between emotion and memory retrieval as follows: depressed people have shown a tendency of representing a story more negatively, and they seemed less expressive. People with full of emotion - high in PANAS - have retrieved their memory more expressively than others, using more negative words then others. The contributions of this study can be summarized as follows: First, lightening the relationship between emotion and its effect during times of storing or retrieving a memory. Second, suggesting objective methods to evaluate the intensity of emotion in natural language format, using a sentimental analysis model.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) aims to predict the sentiment expressed in a review with respect to a given aspect. The core of ABSA is to model the interaction between the context and given aspect to extract the aspect-related information. In prior work, attention mechanisms and dependency graph networks are commonly adopted to capture the relations between the context and given aspect. And the weighted sum of context hidden states is used as the final representation fed to the classifier. However, the information related to the given aspect may be already discarded and adverse information may be retained in the context modeling processes of existing models. This problem cannot be solved by subsequent modules and there are two reasons: first, their operations are conducted on the encoder-generated context hidden states, whose value cannot change after the encoder; second, existing encoders only consider the context while not the given aspect. To address this problem, we argue the given aspect should be considered as a new clue out of context in the context modeling process. As for solutions, we design several aspect-aware context encoders based on different backbones: an aspect-aware LSTM and three aspect-aware BERTs. They are dedicated to generate aspect-aware hidden states which are tailored for ABSA task. In these aspect-aware context encoders, the semantics of the given aspect is used to regulate the information flow. Consequently, the aspect-related information can be retained and aspect-irrelevant information can be excluded in the generated hidden states. We conduct extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets with empirical analysis, demonstrating the efficacies and advantages of our proposed aspect-aware context encoders.
Truly real-life data presents a strong, but exciting challenge for sentiment and emotion research. The high variety of possible `in-the-wild' properties makes large datasets such as these indispensable with respect to building robust machine learning models. A sufficient quantity of data covering a deep variety in the challenges of each modality to force the exploratory analysis of the interplay of all modalities has not yet been made available in this context. In this contribution, we present MuSe-CaR, a first of its kind multimodal dataset. The data is publicly available as it recently served as the testing bed for the 1st Multimodal Sentiment Analysis Challenge, and focused on the tasks of emotion, emotion-target engagement, and trustworthiness recognition by means of comprehensively integrating the audio-visual and language modalities. Furthermore, we give a thorough overview of the dataset in terms of collection and annotation, including annotation tiers not used in this year's MuSe 2020. In addition, for one of the sub-challenges - predicting the level of trustworthiness - no participant outperformed the baseline model, and so we propose a simple, but highly efficient Multi-Head-Attention network that exceeds using multimodal fusion the baseline by around 0.2 CCC (almost 50 % improvement).