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"Sentiment Analysis": models, code, and papers

Unsupervised Sentiment Analysis by Transferring Multi-source Knowledge

May 09, 2021
Yong Dai, Jian Liu, Jian Zhang, Hongguang Fu, Zenglin Xu

Sentiment analysis (SA) is an important research area in cognitive computation-thus in-depth studies of patterns of sentiment analysis are necessary. At present, rich resource data-based SA has been well developed, while the more challenging and practical multi-source unsupervised SA (i.e. a target domain SA by transferring from multiple source domains) is seldom studied. The challenges behind this problem mainly locate in the lack of supervision information, the semantic gaps among domains (i.e., domain shifts), and the loss of knowledge. However, existing methods either lack the distinguishable capacity of the semantic gaps among domains or lose private knowledge. To alleviate these problems, we propose a two-stage domain adaptation framework. In the first stage, a multi-task methodology-based shared-private architecture is employed to explicitly model the domain common features and the domain-specific features for the labeled source domains. In the second stage, two elaborate mechanisms are embedded in the shared private architecture to transfer knowledge from multiple source domains. The first mechanism is a selective domain adaptation (SDA) method, which transfers knowledge from the closest source domain. And the second mechanism is a target-oriented ensemble (TOE) method, in which knowledge is transferred through a well-designed ensemble method. Extensive experiment evaluations verify that the performance of the proposed framework outperforms unsupervised state-of-the-art competitors. What can be concluded from the experiments is that transferring from very different distributed source domains may degrade the target-domain performance, and it is crucial to choose the proper source domains to transfer from.

* 17 pages, 4 figures 
  

Word frequency and sentiment analysis of twitter messages during Coronavirus pandemic

Apr 08, 2020
Nikhil Kumar Rajput, Bhavya Ahuja Grover, Vipin Kumar Rathi

The Coronavirus pandemic has taken the world by storm as also the social media. As the awareness about the ailment increased, so did messages, videos and posts acknowledging its presence. The social networking site, Twitter, demonstrated similar effect with the number of posts related to coronavirus showing an unprecedented growth in a very short span of time. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the twitter messages related to this disease posted since January 2020. Two types of empirical studies have been performed. The first is on word frequency and the second on sentiments of the individual tweet messages. Inspection of the word frequency is useful in characterizing the patterns or trends in the words used on the site. This would also reflect on the psychology of the twitter users at this critical juncture. Unigram, bigram and trigram frequencies have been modeled by power law distribution. The results have been validated by Sum of Square Error (SSE), R2 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). High values of R2 and low values of SSE and RMSE lay the grounds for the goodness of fit of this model. Sentiment analysis has been conducted to understand the general attitudes of the twitter users at this time. Both tweets by general public and WHO were part of the corpus. The results showed that the majority of the tweets had a positive polarity and only about 15% were negative.

  

Cross-language sentiment analysis of European Twitter messages duringthe COVID-19 pandemic

Aug 27, 2020
Anna Kruspe, Matthias Häberle, Iona Kuhn, Xiao Xiang Zhu

Social media data can be a very salient source of information during crises. User-generated messages provide a window into people's minds during such times, allowing us insights about their moods and opinions. Due to the vast amounts of such messages, a large-scale analysis of population-wide developments becomes possible. In this paper, we analyze Twitter messages (tweets) collected during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe with regard to their sentiment. This is implemented with a neural network for sentiment analysis using multilingual sentence embeddings. We separate the results by country of origin, and correlate their temporal development with events in those countries. This allows us to study the effect of the situation on people's moods. We see, for example, that lockdown announcements correlate with a deterioration of mood in almost all surveyed countries, which recovers within a short time span.

  

Fine-Grained Opinion Summarization with Minimal Supervision

Oct 17, 2021
Suyu Ge, Jiaxin Huang, Yu Meng, Sharon Wang, Jiawei Han

Opinion summarization aims to profile a target by extracting opinions from multiple documents. Most existing work approaches the task in a semi-supervised manner due to the difficulty of obtaining high-quality annotation from thousands of documents. Among them, some use aspect and sentiment analysis as a proxy for identifying opinions. In this work, we propose a new framework, FineSum, which advances this frontier in three aspects: (1) minimal supervision, where only aspect names and a few aspect/sentiment keywords are available; (2) fine-grained opinion analysis, where sentiment analysis drills down to the sub-aspect level; and (3) phrase-based summarization, where opinion is summarized in the form of phrases. FineSum automatically identifies opinion phrases from the raw corpus, classifies them into different aspects and sentiments, and constructs multiple fine-grained opinion clusters under each aspect/sentiment. Each cluster consists of semantically coherent phrases, expressing uniform opinions towards certain sub-aspect or characteristics (e.g., positive feelings for ``burgers'' in the ``food'' aspect). An opinion-oriented spherical word embedding space is trained to provide weak supervision for the phrase classifier, and phrase clustering is performed using the aspect-aware contextualized embedding generated from the phrase classifier. Both automatic evaluation on the benchmark and quantitative human evaluation validate the effectiveness of our approach.

  

"Thought I'd Share First": An Analysis of COVID-19 Conspiracy Theories and Misinformation Spread on Twitter

Dec 14, 2020
Dax Gerts, Courtney D. Shelley, Nidhi Parikh, Travis Pitts, Chrysm Watson Ross, Geoffrey Fairchild, Nidia Yadria Vaquera Chavez, Ashlynn R. Daughton

Background: Misinformation spread through social media is a growing problem, and the emergence of COVID-19 has caused an explosion in new activity and renewed focus on the resulting threat to public health. Given this increased visibility, in-depth analysis of COVID-19 misinformation spread is critical to understanding the evolution of ideas with potential negative public health impact. Methods: Using a curated data set of COVID-19 tweets (N ~120 million tweets) spanning late January to early May 2020, we applied methods including regular expression filtering, supervised machine learning, sentiment analysis, geospatial analysis, and dynamic topic modeling to trace the spread of misinformation and to characterize novel features of COVID-19 conspiracy theories. Results: Random forest models for four major misinformation topics provided mixed results, with narrowly-defined conspiracy theories achieving F1 scores of 0.804 and 0.857, while more broad theories performed measurably worse, with scores of 0.654 and 0.347. Despite this, analysis using model-labeled data was beneficial for increasing the proportion of data matching misinformation indicators. We were able to identify distinct increases in negative sentiment, theory-specific trends in geospatial spread, and the evolution of conspiracy theory topics and subtopics over time. Conclusions: COVID-19 related conspiracy theories show that history frequently repeats itself, with the same conspiracy theories being recycled for new situations. We use a combination of supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and natural language processing techniques to look at the evolution of theories over the first four months of the COVID-19 outbreak, how these theories intertwine, and to hypothesize on more effective public health messaging to combat misinformation in online spaces.

  

Tripartite Graph Clustering for Dynamic Sentiment Analysis on Social Media

Jun 12, 2014
Linhong Zhu, Aram Galstyan, James Cheng, Kristina Lerman

The growing popularity of social media (e.g, Twitter) allows users to easily share information with each other and influence others by expressing their own sentiments on various subjects. In this work, we propose an unsupervised \emph{tri-clustering} framework, which analyzes both user-level and tweet-level sentiments through co-clustering of a tripartite graph. A compelling feature of the proposed framework is that the quality of sentiment clustering of tweets, users, and features can be mutually improved by joint clustering. We further investigate the evolution of user-level sentiments and latent feature vectors in an online framework and devise an efficient online algorithm to sequentially update the clustering of tweets, users and features with newly arrived data. The online framework not only provides better quality of both dynamic user-level and tweet-level sentiment analysis, but also improves the computational and storage efficiency. We verified the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approaches on the November 2012 California ballot Twitter data.

* A short version is in Proceeding of the 2014 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of data 
  

Multi-Task Learning with Sentiment, Emotion, and Target Detection to Recognize Hate Speech and Offensive Language

Oct 13, 2021
Flor Miriam Plaza-del-Arco, Sercan Halat, Sebastian Padó, Roman Klinger

The recognition of hate speech and offensive language (HOF) is commonly formulated as a classification task to decide if a text contains HOF. We investigate whether HOF detection can profit by taking into account the relationships between HOF and similar concepts: (a) HOF is related to sentiment analysis because hate speech is typically a negative statement and expresses a negative opinion; (b) it is related to emotion analysis, as expressed hate points to the author experiencing (or pretending to experience) anger while the addressees experience (or are intended to experience) fear. (c) Finally, one constituting element of HOF is the mention of a targeted person or group. On this basis, we hypothesize that HOF detection shows improvements when being modeled jointly with these concepts, in a multi-task learning setup. We base our experiments on existing data sets for each of these concepts (sentiment, emotion, target of HOF) and evaluate our models as a participant (as team IMS-SINAI) in the HASOC FIRE 2021 English Subtask 1A. Based on model-selection experiments in which we consider multiple available resources and submissions to the shared task, we find that the combination of the CrowdFlower emotion corpus, the SemEval 2016 Sentiment Corpus, and the OffensEval 2019 target detection data leads to an F1 =.79 in a multi-head multi-task learning model based on BERT, in comparison to .7895 of plain BERT. On the HASOC 2019 test data, this result is more substantial with an increase by 2pp in F1 and a considerable increase in recall. Across both data sets (2019, 2021), the recall is particularly increased for the class of HOF (6pp for the 2019 data and 3pp for the 2021 data), showing that MTL with emotion, sentiment, and target identification is an appropriate approach for early warning systems that might be deployed in social media platforms.

* publication at FIRE 2021 as system description paper in the HASOC-FIRE shared task on hate speech and offensive language detection 
  

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis of Scientific Reviews

Jun 05, 2020
Souvic Chakraborty, Pawan Goyal, Animesh Mukherjee

Scientific papers are complex and understanding the usefulness of these papers requires prior knowledge. Peer reviews are comments on a paper provided by designated experts on that field and hold a substantial amount of information, not only for the editors and chairs to make the final decision, but also to judge the potential impact of the paper. In this paper, we propose to use aspect-based sentiment analysis of scientific reviews to be able to extract useful information, which correlates well with the accept/reject decision. While working on a dataset of close to 8k reviews from ICLR, one of the top conferences in the field of machine learning, we use an active learning framework to build a training dataset for aspect prediction, which is further used to obtain the aspects and sentiments for the entire dataset. We show that the distribution of aspect-based sentiments obtained from a review is significantly different for accepted and rejected papers. We use the aspect sentiments from these reviews to make an intriguing observation, certain aspects present in a paper and discussed in the review strongly determine the final recommendation. As a second objective, we quantify the extent of disagreement among the reviewers refereeing a paper. We also investigate the extent of disagreement between the reviewers and the chair and find that the inter-reviewer disagreement may have a link to the disagreement with the chair. One of the most interesting observations from this study is that reviews, where the reviewer score and the aspect sentiments extracted from the review text written by the reviewer are consistent, are also more likely to be concurrent with the chair's decision.

* Accepted in JCDL'20 
  

Multi-scale Cooperative Multimodal Transformers for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis in Videos

Jun 17, 2022
Lianyang Ma, Yu Yao, Tao Liang, Tongliang Liu

Multimodal sentiment analysis in videos is a key task in many real-world applications, which usually requires integrating multimodal streams including visual, verbal and acoustic behaviors. To improve the robustness of multimodal fusion, some of the existing methods let different modalities communicate with each other and modal the crossmodal interaction via transformers. However, these methods only use the single-scale representations during the interaction but forget to exploit multi-scale representations that contain different levels of semantic information. As a result, the representations learned by transformers could be biased especially for unaligned multimodal data. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale cooperative multimodal transformer (MCMulT) architecture for multimodal sentiment analysis. On the whole, the "multi-scale" mechanism is capable of exploiting the different levels of semantic information of each modality which are used for fine-grained crossmodal interactions. Meanwhile, each modality learns its feature hierarchies via integrating the crossmodal interactions from multiple level features of its source modality. In this way, each pair of modalities progressively builds feature hierarchies respectively in a cooperative manner. The empirical results illustrate that our MCMulT model not only outperforms existing approaches on unaligned multimodal sequences but also has strong performance on aligned multimodal sequences.

  
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