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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Comparing Neural and Attractiveness-based Visual Features for Artwork Recommendation

Jul 21, 2017
Vicente Dominguez, Pablo Messina, Denis Parra, Domingo Mery, Christoph Trattner, Alvaro Soto

Advances in image processing and computer vision in the latest years have brought about the use of visual features in artwork recommendation. Recent works have shown that visual features obtained from pre-trained deep neural networks (DNNs) perform very well for recommending digital art. Other recent works have shown that explicit visual features (EVF) based on attractiveness can perform well in preference prediction tasks, but no previous work has compared DNN features versus specific attractiveness-based visual features (e.g. brightness, texture) in terms of recommendation performance. In this work, we study and compare the performance of DNN and EVF features for the purpose of physical artwork recommendation using transactional data from UGallery, an online store of physical paintings. In addition, we perform an exploratory analysis to understand if DNN embedded features have some relation with certain EVF. Our results show that DNN features outperform EVF, that certain EVF features are more suited for physical artwork recommendation and, finally, we show evidence that certain neurons in the DNN might be partially encoding visual features such as brightness, providing an opportunity for explaining recommendations based on visual neural models.

* DLRS 2017 workshop, co-located at RecSys 2017 

Word2Vec applied to Recommendation: Hyperparameters Matter

Aug 29, 2018
Hugo Caselles-Dupré, Florian Lesaint, Jimena Royo-Letelier

Skip-gram with negative sampling, a popular variant of Word2vec originally designed and tuned to create word embeddings for Natural Language Processing, has been used to create item embeddings with successful applications in recommendation. While these fields do not share the same type of data, neither evaluate on the same tasks, recommendation applications tend to use the same already tuned hyperparameters values, even if optimal hyperparameters values are often known to be data and task dependent. We thus investigate the marginal importance of each hyperparameter in a recommendation setting through large hyperparameter grid searches on various datasets. Results reveal that optimizing neglected hyperparameters, namely negative sampling distribution, number of epochs, subsampling parameter and window-size, significantly improves performance on a recommendation task, and can increase it by an order of magnitude. Importantly, we find that optimal hyperparameters configurations for Natural Language Processing tasks and Recommendation tasks are noticeably different.

* This paper is published on the 12th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, Vancouver, Canada, 2nd-7th October 2018 

Seamlessly Unifying Attributes and Items: Conversational Recommendation for Cold-Start Users

May 23, 2020
Shijun Li, Wenqiang Lei, Qingyun Wu, Xiangnan He, Peng Jiang, Tat-Seng Chua

Static recommendation methods like collaborative filtering suffer from the inherent limitation of performing real-time personalization for cold-start users. Online recommendation, e.g., multi-armed bandit approach, addresses this limitation by interactively exploring user preference online and pursuing the exploration-exploitation (EE) trade-off. However, existing bandit-based methods model recommendation actions homogeneously. Specifically, they only consider the items as the arms, being incapable of handling the item attributes, which naturally provide interpretable information of user's current demands and can effectively filter out undesired items. In this work, we consider the conversational recommendation for cold-start users, where a system can both ask the attributes from and recommend items to a user interactively. This important scenario was studied in a recent work. However, it employs a hand-crafted function to decide when to ask attributes or make recommendations. Such separate modeling of attributes and items makes the effectiveness of the system highly rely on the choice of the hand-crafted function, thus introducing fragility to the system. To address this limitation, we seamlessly unify attributes and items in the same arm space and achieve their EE trade-offs automatically using the framework of Thompson Sampling. Our Conversational Thompson Sampling (ConTS) model holistically solves all questions in conversational recommendation by choosing the arm with the maximal reward to play. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that ConTS outperforms the state-of-the-art methods Conversational UCB (ConUCB) and Estimation-Action-Reflection model in both metrics of success rate and average number of conversation turns.

* 25 pages, 4 figures 

Hotel Recommendation System

Aug 21, 2019
Aditi A. Mavalankar, Ajitesh Gupta, Chetan Gandotra, Rishabh Misra

One of the first things to do while planning a trip is to book a good place to stay. Booking a hotel online can be an overwhelming task with thousands of hotels to choose from, for every destination. Motivated by the importance of these situations, we decided to work on the task of recommending hotels to users. We used Expedia's hotel recommendation dataset, which has a variety of features that helped us achieve a deep understanding of the process that makes a user choose certain hotels over others. The aim of this hotel recommendation task is to predict and recommend five hotel clusters to a user that he/she is more likely to book given hundred distinct clusters.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1703.02915 by other authors 

Adaptively Weighted Top-N Recommendation for Organ Matching

Jul 23, 2021
Parshin Shojaee, Xiaoyu Chen, Ran Jin

Reducing the shortage of organ donations to meet the demands of patients on the waiting list has being a major challenge in organ transplantation. Because of the shortage, organ matching decision is the most critical decision to assign the limited viable organs to the most suitable patients. Currently, organ matching decisions were only made by matching scores calculated via scoring models, which are built by the first principles. However, these models may disagree with the actual post-transplantation matching performance (e.g., patient's post-transplant quality of life (QoL) or graft failure measurements). In this paper, we formulate the organ matching decision-making as a top-N recommendation problem and propose an Adaptively Weighted Top-N Recommendation (AWTR) method. AWTR improves performance of the current scoring models by using limited actual matching performance in historical data set as well as the collected covariates from organ donors and patients. AWTR sacrifices the overall recommendation accuracy by emphasizing the recommendation and ranking accuracy for top-N matched patients. The proposed method is validated in a simulation study, where KAS [60] is used to simulate the organ-patient recommendation response. The results show that our proposed method outperforms seven state-of-the-art top-N recommendation benchmark methods.


Five lessons from building a deep neural network recommender

Oct 07, 2018
Simen Eide, Audun M. Øygard, Ning Zhou

Recommendation algorithms are widely adopted in marketplaces to help users find the items they are looking for. The sparsity of the items by user matrix and the cold-start issue in marketplaces pose challenges for the off-the-shelf matrix factorization based recommender systems. To understand user intent and tailor recommendations to their needs, we use deep learning to explore various heterogeneous data available in marketplaces. This paper summarizes five lessons we learned from experimenting with state-of-the-art deep learning recommenders at the leading Norwegian marketplace We design a hybrid recommender system that takes the user-generated contents of a marketplace (including text, images and meta attributes) and combines them with user behavior data such as page views and messages to provide recommendations for marketplace items. Among various tactics we experimented with, the following five show the best impact: staged training instead of end-to-end training, leveraging rich user behaviors beyond page views, using user behaviors as noisy labels to train embeddings, using transfer learning to solve the unbalanced data problem, and using attention mechanisms in the hybrid model. This system is currently running with around 20% click-through-rate in production at and serves over one million visitors everyday.

* Fixed typos. Removed "staged training strategy" result, as it will vary a lot depending on how the stages are designed 

Fast and Accurate Knowledge-Aware Document Representation Enhancement for News Recommendations

Oct 25, 2019
Danyang Liu, Jianxun Lian, Ying Qiao, Jiun-Hung Chen, Guangzhong Sun, Xing Xie

Knowledge graph contains well-structured external information and has shown to be useful for recommender systems. Most existing knowledge-aware methods assume that the item from recommender systems can be linked to an entity in a knowledge graph, thus item embeddings can be better learned by jointly modeling of both recommender systems and a knowledge graph. However, this is not the situation for news recommendation, where items, namely news articles, are in fact related to a collection of knowledge entities. The importance score and semantic information of entities in one article differ from each other, which depend on the topic of the article and relations among co-occurred entities. How to fully utilize these entities for better news recommendation service is non-trivial. In this paper, we propose a fast and effective knowledge-aware representation enhancement model for improving news document understanding. The model, named \emph{KRED}, consists of three layers: (1) an entity representation layer; (2) a context embedding layer; and (3) an information distillation layer. An entity is represented by the embeddings of itself and its surrounding entities. The context embedding layer is designed to distinguish dynamic context of different entities such as frequency, category and position. The information distillation layer will aggregate the entity embeddings under the guidance of the original document vector, transforming the document vector into a new one. We have conduct extensive experiments on a real-world news reading dataset. The results demonstrate that our proposed model greatly benefits a variety of news recommendation tasks, including personalized news recommendation, article category classification, article popularity prediction and local news detection.


Fighting Fire with Fire: Using Antidote Data to Improve Polarization and Fairness of Recommender Systems

Jan 14, 2019
Bashir Rastegarpanah, Krishna P. Gummadi, Mark Crovella

The increasing role of recommender systems in many aspects of society makes it essential to consider how such systems may impact social good. Various modifications to recommendation algorithms have been proposed to improve their performance for specific socially relevant measures. However, previous proposals are often not easily adapted to different measures, and they generally require the ability to modify either existing system inputs, the system's algorithm, or the system's outputs. As an alternative, in this paper we introduce the idea of improving the social desirability of recommender system outputs by adding more data to the input, an approach we view as as providing `antidote' data to the system. We formalize the antidote data problem, and develop optimization-based solutions. We take as our model system the matrix factorization approach to recommendation, and we propose a set of measures to capture the polarization or fairness of recommendations. We then show how to generate antidote data for each measure, pointing out a number of computational efficiencies, and discuss the impact on overall system accuracy. Our experiments show that a modest budget for antidote data can lead to significant improvements in the polarization or fairness of recommendations.

* References to appendices are fixed 

HARRISON: A Benchmark on HAshtag Recommendation for Real-world Images in Social Networks

May 17, 2016
Minseok Park, Hanxiang Li, Junmo Kim

Simple, short, and compact hashtags cover a wide range of information on social networks. Although many works in the field of natural language processing (NLP) have demonstrated the importance of hashtag recommendation, hashtag recommendation for images has barely been studied. In this paper, we introduce the HARRISON dataset, a benchmark on hashtag recommendation for real world images in social networks. The HARRISON dataset is a realistic dataset, composed of 57,383 photos from Instagram and an average of 4.5 associated hashtags for each photo. To evaluate our dataset, we design a baseline framework consisting of visual feature extractor based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and multi-label classifier based on neural network. Based on this framework, two single feature-based models, object-based and scene-based model, and an integrated model of them are evaluated on the HARRISON dataset. Our dataset shows that hashtag recommendation task requires a wide and contextual understanding of the situation conveyed in the image. As far as we know, this work is the first vision-only attempt at hashtag recommendation for real world images in social networks. We expect this benchmark to accelerate the advancement of hashtag recommendation.