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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Lightweight Self-Attentive Sequential Recommendation

Aug 25, 2021
Yang Li, Tong Chen, Peng-Fei Zhang, Hongzhi Yin

Modern deep neural networks (DNNs) have greatly facilitated the development of sequential recommender systems by achieving state-of-the-art recommendation performance on various sequential recommendation tasks. Given a sequence of interacted items, existing DNN-based sequential recommenders commonly embed each item into a unique vector to support subsequent computations of the user interest. However, due to the potentially large number of items, the over-parameterised item embedding matrix of a sequential recommender has become a memory bottleneck for efficient deployment in resource-constrained environments, e.g., smartphones and other edge devices. Furthermore, we observe that the widely-used multi-head self-attention, though being effective in modelling sequential dependencies among items, heavily relies on redundant attention units to fully capture both global and local item-item transition patterns within a sequence. In this paper, we introduce a novel lightweight self-attentive network (LSAN) for sequential recommendation. To aggressively compress the original embedding matrix, LSAN leverages the notion of compositional embeddings, where each item embedding is composed by merging a group of selected base embedding vectors derived from substantially smaller embedding matrices. Meanwhile, to account for the intrinsic dynamics of each item, we further propose a temporal context-aware embedding composition scheme. Besides, we develop an innovative twin-attention network that alleviates the redundancy of the traditional multi-head self-attention while retaining full capacity for capturing long- and short-term (i.e., global and local) item dependencies. Comprehensive experiments demonstrate that LSAN significantly advances the accuracy and memory efficiency of existing sequential recommenders.


PAS: A Position-Aware Similarity Measurement for Sequential Recommendation

May 19, 2022
Zijie Zeng, Jing Lin, Weike Pan, Zhong Ming, Zhongqi Lu

The common item-based collaborative filtering framework becomes a typical recommendation method when equipped with a certain item-to-item similarity measurement. On one hand, we realize that a well-designed similarity measurement is the key to providing satisfactory recommendation services. On the other hand, similarity measurements designed for sequential recommendation are rarely studied by the recommender systems community. Hence in this paper, we focus on devising a novel similarity measurement called position-aware similarity (PAS) for sequential recommendation. The proposed PAS is, to our knowledge, the first count-based similarity measurement that concurrently captures the sequential patterns from the historical user behavior data and from the item position information within the input sequences. We conduct extensive empirical studies on four public datasets, in which our proposed PAS-based method exhibits competitive performance even compared to the state-of-the-art sequential recommendation methods, including a very recent similarity-based method and two GNN-based methods.

* International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2022, Padua, Italy), 8 pages, Camera-Ready Version 

A survey of recommender systems for energy efficiency in buildings: Principles, challenges and prospects

Feb 09, 2021
Yassine Himeur, Abdullah Alsalemi, Ayman Al-Kababji, Faycal Bensaali, Abbes Amira, Christos Sardianos, George Dimitrakopoulos, Iraklis Varlamis

Recommender systems have significantly developed in recent years in parallel with the witnessed advancements in both internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. Accordingly, as a consequence of IoT and AI, multiple forms of data are incorporated in these systems, e.g. social, implicit, local and personal information, which can help in improving recommender systems' performance and widen their applicability to traverse different disciplines. On the other side, energy efficiency in the building sector is becoming a hot research topic, in which recommender systems play a major role by promoting energy saving behavior and reducing carbon emissions. However, the deployment of the recommendation frameworks in buildings still needs more investigations to identify the current challenges and issues, where their solutions are the keys to enable the pervasiveness of research findings, and therefore, ensure a large-scale adoption of this technology. Accordingly, this paper presents, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first timely and comprehensive reference for energy-efficiency recommendation systems through (i) surveying existing recommender systems for energy saving in buildings; (ii) discussing their evolution; (iii) providing an original taxonomy of these systems based on specified criteria, including the nature of the recommender engine, its objective, computing platforms, evaluation metrics and incentive measures; and (iv) conducting an in-depth, critical analysis to identify their limitations and unsolved issues. The derived challenges and areas of future implementation could effectively guide the energy research community to improve the energy-efficiency in buildings and reduce the cost of developed recommender systems-based solutions.

* Information Fusion 2021 
* 35 pages, 11 figures, 1 table 

Visually-Aware Fashion Recommendation and Design with Generative Image Models

Nov 07, 2017
Wang-Cheng Kang, Chen Fang, Zhaowen Wang, Julian McAuley

Building effective recommender systems for domains like fashion is challenging due to the high level of subjectivity and the semantic complexity of the features involved (i.e., fashion styles). Recent work has shown that approaches to `visual' recommendation (e.g.~clothing, art, etc.) can be made more accurate by incorporating visual signals directly into the recommendation objective, using `off-the-shelf' feature representations derived from deep networks. Here, we seek to extend this contribution by showing that recommendation performance can be significantly improved by learning `fashion aware' image representations directly, i.e., by training the image representation (from the pixel level) and the recommender system jointly; this contribution is related to recent work using Siamese CNNs, though we are able to show improvements over state-of-the-art recommendation techniques such as BPR and variants that make use of pre-trained visual features. Furthermore, we show that our model can be used \emph{generatively}, i.e., given a user and a product category, we can generate new images (i.e., clothing items) that are most consistent with their personal taste. This represents a first step towards building systems that go beyond recommending existing items from a product corpus, but which can be used to suggest styles and aid the design of new products.

* 10 pages, 6 figures. Accepted by ICDM'17 as a long paper 

Rich-Item Recommendations for Rich-Users via GCNN: Exploiting Dynamic and Static Side Information

Jan 28, 2020
Amar Budhiraja, Gaurush Hiranandani, Navya Yarrabelly, Ayush Choure, Oluwasanmi Koyejo, Prateek Jain

We study the standard problem of recommending relevant items to users; a user is someone who seeks recommendation, and an item is something which should be recommended. In today's modern world, both users and items are 'rich' multi-faceted entities but existing literature, for ease of modeling, views these facets in silos. In this paper, we provide a general formulation of the recommendation problem that captures the complexities of modern systems and encompasses most of the existing recommendation system formulations. In our formulation, each user and item is modeled via a set of static entities and a dynamic component. The relationships between entities are captured by multiple weighted bipartite graphs. To effectively exploit these complex interactions for recommendations, we propose MEDRES -- a multiple graph-CNN based novel deep-learning architecture. In addition, we propose a new metric, [email protected], that is critical for a variety of classification+ranking scenarios. We also provide an optimization algorithm that directly optimizes the proposed metric and trains MEDRES in an end-to-end framework. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on two benchmarks as well as on a message recommendation system deployed in Microsoft Teams where it improves upon the existing production-grade model by 3%.

* The first two authors contributed equally. 14 pages, 2 figures and 5 tables 

Sequential recommendation with metric models based on frequent sequences

Aug 12, 2020
Corentin Lonjarret, Roch Auburtin, Céline Robardet, Marc Plantevit

Modeling user preferences (long-term history) and user dynamics (short-term history) is of greatest importance to build efficient sequential recommender systems. The challenge lies in the successful combination of the whole user's history and his recent actions (sequential dynamics) to provide personalized recommendations. Existing methods capture the sequential dynamics of a user using fixed-order Markov chains (usually first order chains) regardless of the user, which limits both the impact of the past of the user on the recommendation and the ability to adapt its length to the user profile. In this article, we propose to use frequent sequences to identify the most relevant part of the user history for the recommendation. The most salient items are then used in a unified metric model that embeds items based on user preferences and sequential dynamics. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art, especially on sparse datasets. We show that considering sequences of varying lengths improves the recommendations and we also emphasize that these sequences provide explanations on the recommendation.

* 25 pages, 6 figures, submitted to DAMI (under review) 

Deep Unified Representation for Heterogeneous Recommendation

Jan 26, 2022
Chengqiang Lu, Mingyang Yin, Shuheng Shen, Luo Ji, Qi Liu, Hongxia Yang

Recommendation system has been a widely studied task both in academia and industry. Previous works mainly focus on homogeneous recommendation and little progress has been made for heterogeneous recommender systems. However, heterogeneous recommendations, e.g., recommending different types of items including products, videos, celebrity shopping notes, among many others, are dominant nowadays. State-of-the-art methods are incapable of leveraging attributes from different types of items and thus suffer from data sparsity problems. And it is indeed quite challenging to represent items with different feature spaces jointly. To tackle this problem, we propose a kernel-based neural network, namely deep unified representation (or DURation) for heterogeneous recommendation, to jointly model unified representations of heterogeneous items while preserving their original feature space topology structures. Theoretically, we prove the representation ability of the proposed model. Besides, we conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that with the unified representation, our model achieves remarkable improvement (e.g., 4.1% ~ 34.9% lift by AUC score and 3.7% lift by online CTR) over existing state-of-the-art models.

* 12 pages, 4 figures, accepted by the ACM Web Conference 2022 (WWW '22) 

Near-optimal Individualized Treatment Recommendations

Apr 06, 2020
Haomiao Meng, Ying-Qi Zhao, Haoda Fu, Xingye Qiao

Individualized treatment recommendation (ITR) is an important analytic framework for precision medicine. The goal is to assign proper treatments to patients based on their individual characteristics. From the machine learning perspective, the solution to an ITR problem can be formulated as a weighted classification problem to maximize the average benefit that patients receive from the recommended treatments. Several methods have been proposed for ITR in both binary and multicategory treatment setups. In practice, one may prefer a more flexible recommendation with multiple treatment options. This motivates us to develop methods to obtain a set of near-optimal individualized treatment recommendations alternative to each other, called alternative individualized treatment recommendations (A-ITR). We propose two methods to estimate the optimal A-ITR within the outcome weighted learning (OWL) framework. We show the consistency of these methods and obtain an upper bound for the risk between the theoretically optimal recommendation and the estimated one. We also conduct simulation studies, and apply our methods to a real data set for Type 2 diabetic patients with injectable antidiabetic treatments. These numerical studies have shown the usefulness of the proposed A-ITR framework. We develop a R package aitr which can be found at