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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Adversarial and Contrastive Variational Autoencoder for Sequential Recommendation

Mar 19, 2021
Zhe Xie, Chengxuan Liu, Yichi Zhang, Hongtao Lu, Dong Wang, Yue Ding

Sequential recommendation as an emerging topic has attracted increasing attention due to its important practical significance. Models based on deep learning and attention mechanism have achieved good performance in sequential recommendation. Recently, the generative models based on Variational Autoencoder (VAE) have shown the unique advantage in collaborative filtering. In particular, the sequential VAE model as a recurrent version of VAE can effectively capture temporal dependencies among items in user sequence and perform sequential recommendation. However, VAE-based models suffer from a common limitation that the representational ability of the obtained approximate posterior distribution is limited, resulting in lower quality of generated samples. This is especially true for generating sequences. To solve the above problem, in this work, we propose a novel method called Adversarial and Contrastive Variational Autoencoder (ACVAE) for sequential recommendation. Specifically, we first introduce the adversarial training for sequence generation under the Adversarial Variational Bayes (AVB) framework, which enables our model to generate high-quality latent variables. Then, we employ the contrastive loss. The latent variables will be able to learn more personalized and salient characteristics by minimizing the contrastive loss. Besides, when encoding the sequence, we apply a recurrent and convolutional structure to capture global and local relationships in the sequence. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on four real-world datasets. The experimental results show that our proposed ACVAE model outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.

* 11 pages, WWW 2021 

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Online Product Feature Recommendations with Interpretable Machine Learning

Apr 28, 2021
Mingming Guo, Nian Yan, Xiquan Cui, Simon Hughes, Khalifeh Al Jadda

Product feature recommendations are critical for online customers to purchase the right products based on the right features. For a customer, selecting the product that has the best trade-off between price and functionality is a time-consuming step in an online shopping experience, and customers can be overwhelmed by the available choices. However, determining the set of product features that most differentiate a particular product is still an open question in online recommender systems. In this paper, we focus on using interpretable machine learning methods to tackle this problem. First, we identify this unique product feature recommendation problem from a business perspective on a major US e-commerce site. Second, we formulate the problem into a price-driven supervised learning problem to discover the product features that could best explain the price of a product in a given product category. We build machine learning models with a model-agnostic method Shapley Values to understand the importance of each feature, rank and recommend the most essential features. Third, we leverage human experts to evaluate its relevancy. The results show that our method is superior to a strong baseline method based on customer behavior and significantly boosts the coverage by 45%. Finally, our proposed method shows comparable conversion rate against the baseline in online A/B tests.

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Disentangling Long and Short-Term Interests for Recommendation

Feb 26, 2022
Yu Zheng, Chen Gao, Jianxin Chang, Yanan Niu, Yang Song, Depeng Jin, Yong Li

Modeling user's long-term and short-term interests is crucial for accurate recommendation. However, since there is no manually annotated label for user interests, existing approaches always follow the paradigm of entangling these two aspects, which may lead to inferior recommendation accuracy and interpretability. In this paper, to address it, we propose a Contrastive learning framework to disentangle Long and Short-term interests for Recommendation (CLSR) with self-supervision. Specifically, we first propose two separate encoders to independently capture user interests of different time scales. We then extract long-term and short-term interests proxies from the interaction sequences, which serve as pseudo labels for user interests. Then pairwise contrastive tasks are designed to supervise the similarity between interest representations and their corresponding interest proxies. Finally, since the importance of long-term and short-term interests is dynamically changing, we propose to adaptively aggregate them through an attention-based network for prediction. We conduct experiments on two large-scale real-world datasets for e-commerce and short-video recommendation. Empirical results show that our CLSR consistently outperforms all state-of-the-art models with significant improvements: GAUC is improved by over 0.01, and NDCG is improved by over 4%. Further counterfactual evaluations demonstrate that stronger disentanglement of long and short-term interests is successfully achieved by CLSR. The code and data are available at

* Accepted by WWW'22 

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DebiasGAN: Eliminating Position Bias in News Recommendation with Adversarial Learning

Jun 11, 2021
Chuhan Wu, Fangzhao Wu, Yongfeng Huang

News recommendation is important for improving news reading experience of users. Users' news click behaviors are widely used for inferring user interests and predicting future clicks. However, click behaviors are heavily affected by the biases brought by the positions of news displayed on the webpage. It is important to eliminate the effect of position biases on the recommendation model to accurately target user interests. In this paper, we propose a news recommendation method named DebiasGAN that can effectively eliminate the effect of position biases via adversarial learning. We use a bias-aware click model to capture the influence of position bias on click behaviors, and we use a bias-invariant click model with random candidate news positions to estimate the ideally unbiased click scores. We apply adversarial learning techniques to the hidden representations learned by the two models to help the bias-invariant click model capture the bias-independent interest of users on news. Experimental results on two real-world datasets show that DebiasGAN can effectively improve the accuracy of news recommendation by eliminating position biases.

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Causal Disentanglement for Semantics-Aware Intent Learning in Recommendation

Feb 05, 2022
Xiangmeng Wang, Qian Li, Dianer Yu, Peng Cui, Zhichao Wang, Guandong Xu

Traditional recommendation models trained on observational interaction data have generated large impacts in a wide range of applications, it faces bias problems that cover users' true intent and thus deteriorate the recommendation effectiveness. Existing methods tracks this problem as eliminating bias for the robust recommendation, e.g., by re-weighting training samples or learning disentangled representation. The disentangled representation methods as the state-of-the-art eliminate bias through revealing cause-effect of the bias generation. However, how to design the semantics-aware and unbiased representation for users true intents is largely unexplored. To bridge the gap, we are the first to propose an unbiased and semantics-aware disentanglement learning called CaDSI (Causal Disentanglement for Semantics-Aware Intent Learning) from a causal perspective. Particularly, CaDSI explicitly models the causal relations underlying recommendation task, and thus produces semantics-aware representations via disentangling users true intents aware of specific item context. Moreover, the causal intervention mechanism is designed to eliminate confounding bias stemmed from context information, which further to align the semantics-aware representation with users true intent. Extensive experiments and case studies both validate the robustness and interpretability of our proposed model.

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Causality and Correlation Graph Modeling for Effective and Explainable Session-based Recommendation

Jan 27, 2022
Cong Geng, Huizi Wu, Hui Fang

Session-based recommendation which has been witnessed a booming interest recently, focuses on predicting a user's next interested item(s) based on an anonymous session. Most existing studies adopt complex deep learning techniques (e.g., graph neural networks) for effective session-based recommendation. However, they merely address co-occurrence between items, but fail to well distinguish causality and correlation relationship. Considering the varied interpretations and characteristics of causality and correlation relationship between items, in this study, we propose a novel method denoted as CGSR by jointly modeling causality and correlation relationship between items. In particular, we construct cause, effect and correlation graphs from sessions by simultaneously considering the false causality problem. We further design a graph neural network-based method for session-based recommendation. Extensive experiments on three datasets show that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of recommendation accuracy. Moreover, we further propose an explainable framework on CGSR, and demonstrate the explainability of our model via case studies on Amazon dataset.

* submitted to TOIS 

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FairRec: Two-Sided Fairness for Personalized Recommendations in Two-Sided Platforms

Feb 25, 2020
Gourab K. Patro, Arpita Biswas, Niloy Ganguly, Krishna P. Gummadi, Abhijnan Chakraborty

We investigate the problem of fair recommendation in the context of two-sided online platforms, comprising customers on one side and producers on the other. Traditionally, recommendation services in these platforms have focused on maximizing customer satisfaction by tailoring the results according to the personalized preferences of individual customers. However, our investigation reveals that such customer-centric design may lead to unfair distribution of exposure among the producers, which may adversely impact their well-being. On the other hand, a producer-centric design might become unfair to the customers. Thus, we consider fairness issues that span both customers and producers. Our approach involves a novel mapping of the fair recommendation problem to a constrained version of the problem of fairly allocating indivisible goods. Our proposed FairRec algorithm guarantees at least Maximin Share (MMS) of exposure for most of the producers and Envy-Free up to One item (EF1) fairness for every customer. Extensive evaluations over multiple real-world datasets show the effectiveness of FairRec in ensuring two-sided fairness while incurring a marginal loss in the overall recommendation quality.

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From Fully Supervised to Zero Shot Settings for Twitter Hashtag Recommendation

Jun 11, 2019
Abhay Kumar, Nishant Jain, Suraj Tripathi, Chirag Singh

We propose a comprehensive end-to-end pipeline for Twitter hashtags recommendation system including data collection, supervised training setting and zero shot training setting. In the supervised training setting, we have proposed and compared the performance of various deep learning architectures, namely Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Transformer Network. However, it is not feasible to collect data for all possible hashtag labels and train a classifier model on them. To overcome this limitation, we propose a Zero Shot Learning (ZSL) paradigm for predicting unseen hashtag labels by learning the relationship between the semantic space of tweets and the embedding space of hashtag labels. We evaluated various state-of-the-art ZSL methods like Convex combination of Semantic Embedding (ConSE), Embarrassingly Simple Zero-Shot Learning (ESZSL) and Deep Embedding Model for Zero-Shot Learning (DEM-ZSL) for the hashtag recommendation task. We demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of ZSL methods for the recommendation of unseen hashtags. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative evaluation of ZSL methods to date for unseen hashtags recommendations from tweet text.

* Accepted in CICLing 2019 

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Mitigating Hidden Confounding Effects for Causal Recommendation

May 16, 2022
Xinyuan Zhu, Yang Zhang, Fuli Feng, Xun Yang, Dingxian Wang, Xiangnan He

Recommender systems suffer from confounding biases when there exist confounders affecting both item features and user feedback (e.g., like or not). Existing causal recommendation methods typically assume confounders are fully observed and measured, forgoing the possible existence of hidden confounders in real applications. For instance, product quality is a confounder since affecting both item prices and user ratings, but is hidden for the third-party e-commerce platform due to the difficulty of large-scale quality inspection; ignoring it could result in the bias effect of over-recommending high-price items. This work analyzes and addresses the problem from a causal perspective. The key lies in modeling the causal effect of item features on a user's feedback. To mitigate hidden confounding effects, it is compulsory but challenging to estimate the causal effect without measuring the confounder. Towards this goal, we propose a Hidden Confounder Removal (HCR) framework that leverages front-door adjustment to decompose the causal effect into two partial effects, according to the mediators between item features and user feedback. The partial effects are independent from the hidden confounder and identifiable. During training, HCR performs multi-task learning to infer the partial effects from historical interactions. We instantiate HCR for two scenarios and conduct experiments on three real-world datasets. Empirical results show that the HCR framework provides more accurate recommendations, especially for less-active users. We will release the code once accepted.

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Empowering Next POI Recommendation with Multi-Relational Modeling

Apr 24, 2022
Zheng Huang, Jing Ma, Yushun Dong, Natasha Zhang Foutz, Jundong Li

With the wide adoption of mobile devices and web applications, location-based social networks (LBSNs) offer large-scale individual-level location-related activities and experiences. Next point-of-interest (POI) recommendation is one of the most important tasks in LBSNs, aiming to make personalized recommendations of next suitable locations to users by discovering preferences from users' historical activities. Noticeably, LBSNs have offered unparalleled access to abundant heterogeneous relational information about users and POIs (including user-user social relations, such as families or colleagues; and user-POI visiting relations). Such relational information holds great potential to facilitate the next POI recommendation. However, most existing methods either focus on merely the user-POI visits, or handle different relations based on over-simplified assumptions while neglecting relational heterogeneities. To fill these critical voids, we propose a novel framework, MEMO, which effectively utilizes the heterogeneous relations with a multi-network representation learning module, and explicitly incorporates the inter-temporal user-POI mutual influence with the coupled recurrent neural networks. Extensive experiments on real-world LBSN data validate the superiority of our framework over the state-of-the-art next POI recommendation methods.

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