The online videos are generated at an unprecedented speed in recent years. As a result, how to generate personalized recommendation from the large volume of videos becomes more and more challenging. In this paper, we propose to extract the non-textual contents from the videos themselves to enhance the personalized video recommendation. The change of the content types makes us study three issues in this paper. The first issue is what non-textual contents are helpful. Considering the users are attracted by the videos in different aspects, multiple audio and visual features are extracted, encoded and transformed to represent the video contents in the recommender system for the first time. The second issue is how to use the non-textual contents to generate accurate personalized recommendation. We reproduce the existing methods and find that they do not perform well with the non-textual contents due to the mismatch between the features and the learning methods. To address this problem, we propose a new method in this paper. Our experiments show that the proposed method is more accurate whether the video content features are non-textual or textual.
Personalization of natural language generation plays a vital role in a large spectrum of tasks, such as explainable recommendation, review summarization and dialog systems. In these tasks, user and item IDs are important identifiers for personalization. Transformer, which is demonstrated with strong language modeling capability, however, is not personalized and fails to make use of the user and item IDs since the ID tokens are not even in the same semantic space as the words. To address this problem, we present a PErsonalized Transformer for Explainable Recommendation (PETER), on which we design a simple and effective learning objective that utilizes the IDs to predict the words in the target explanation, so as to endow the IDs with linguistic meanings and to achieve personalized Transformer. Besides generating explanations, PETER can also make recommendations, which makes it a unified model for the whole recommendation-explanation pipeline. Extensive experiments show that our small unpretrained model outperforms fine-tuned BERT on the generation task, in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency, which highlights the importance and the nice utility of our design.
In today's business marketplace, many high-tech Internet enterprises constantly explore innovative ways to provide optimal online user experiences for gaining competitive advantages. The great needs of developing intelligent interactive recommendation systems are indicated, which could sequentially suggest users the most proper items by accurately predicting their preferences, while receiving the up-to-date feedback to refine the recommendation results, continuously. Multi-armed bandit algorithms, which have been widely applied into various online systems, are quite capable of delivering such efficient recommendation services. However, few existing bandit models are able to adapt to new changes introduced by the modern recommender systems.
Bibliographic reference parsers extract machine-readable metadata such as author names, title, journal, and year from bibliographic reference strings. To extract the metadata, the parsers apply heuristics or machine learning. However, no reference parser, and no algorithm, consistently gives the best results in every scenario. For instance, one tool may be best in extracting titles in ACM citation style, but only third best when APA is used. Another tool may be best in extracting English author names, while another one is best for noisy data (i.e. inconsistent citation styles). In this paper, which is an extended version of our recent RecSys poster, we address the problem of reference parsing from a recommender-systems and meta-learning perspective. We propose ParsRec, a meta-learning based recommender-system that recommends the potentially most effective parser for a given reference string. ParsRec recommends one out of 10 open-source parsers: Anystyle-Parser, Biblio, CERMINE, Citation, Citation-Parser, GROBID, ParsCit, PDFSSA4MET, Reference Tagger, and Science Parse. We evaluate ParsRec on 105k references from chemistry. We propose two approaches to meta-learning recommendations. The first approach learns the best parser for an entire reference string. The second approach learns the best parser for each metadata type in a reference string. The second approach achieved a 2.6% increase in F1 (0.909 vs. 0.886) over the best single parser (GROBID), reducing the false positive rate by 20.2% (0.075 vs. 0.094), and the false negative rate by 18.9% (0.107 vs. 0.132).
Recommender systems play an important role in helping people find information and make decisions in today's increasingly digitalized societies. However, the wide adoption of such machine learning applications also causes concerns in terms of data privacy. These concerns are addressed by the recent "General Data Protection Regulation" (GDPR) in Europe, which requires companies to delete personal user data upon request when users enforce their "right to be forgotten". Many researchers argue that this deletion obligation does not only apply to the data stored in primary data stores such as relational databases but also requires an update of machine learning models whose training set included the personal data to delete. We explore this direction in the context of a sequential recommendation task called Next Basket Recommendation (NBR), where the goal is to recommend a set of items based on a user's purchase history. We design efficient algorithms for incrementally and decrementally updating a state-of-the-art next basket recommendation model in response to additions and deletions of user baskets and items. Furthermore, we discuss an efficient, data-parallel implementation of our method in the Spark Structured Streaming system. We evaluate our implementation on a variety of real-world datasets, where we investigate the impact of our update techniques on several ranking metrics and measure the time to perform model updates. Our results show that our method provides constant update time efficiency with respect to an additional user basket in the incremental case, and linear efficiency in the decremental case where we delete existing baskets. With modest computational resources, we are able to update models with a latency of around 0.2~milliseconds regardless of the history size in the incremental case, and less than one millisecond in the decremental case.
The personalized recommendation is an essential part of modern e-commerce, where user's demands are not only conditioned by their profile but also by their recent browsing behaviors as well as periodical purchases made some time ago. In this paper, we propose a novel framework named Search-based Time-Aware Recommendation (STARec), which captures the evolving demands of users over time through a unified search-based time-aware model. More concretely, we first design a search-based module to retrieve a user's relevant historical behaviors, which are then mixed up with her recent records to be fed into a time-aware sequential network for capturing her time-sensitive demands. Besides retrieving relevant information from her personal history, we also propose to search and retrieve similar user's records as an additional reference. All these sequential records are further fused to make the final recommendation. Beyond this framework, we also develop a novel label trick that uses the previous labels (i.e., user's feedbacks) as the input to better capture the user's browsing pattern. We conduct extensive experiments on three real-world commercial datasets on click-through-rate prediction tasks against state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority and efficiency of our proposed framework and techniques. Furthermore, results of online experiments on a daily item recommendation platform of Company X show that STARec gains average performance improvement of around 6% and 1.5% in its two main item recommendation scenarios on CTR metric respectively.
Item-item collaborative filtering (CF) models are a well known and studied family of recommender systems, however current literature does not provide any theoretical explanation of the conditions under which item-based recommendations will succeed or fail. We investigate the existence of an ideal item-based CF method able to make perfect recommendations. This CF model is formalized as an eigenvalue problem, where estimated ratings are equivalent to the true (unknown) ratings multiplied by a user-specific eigenvalue of the similarity matrix. Preliminary experiments show that the magnitude of the eigenvalue is proportional to the accuracy of recommendations for that user and therefore it can provide reliable measure of confidence.
Animated avatars, which look and talk like humans, are iconic visions of the future of AI-powered systems. Through many sci-fi movies we are acquainted with the idea of speaking to such virtual personalities as if they were humans. Today, we talk more and more to machines like Apple's Siri, e.g., to ask them for the weather forecast. However, when asked for recommendations, e.g., for a restaurant to go to, the limitations of such devices quickly become obvious. They do not engage in a conversation to find out what we might prefer, they often do not provide explanations for what they recommend, and they may have difficulties remembering what was said one minute earlier. Conversational recommender systems promise to address these limitations. In this paper, we review existing approaches to build such systems, which developments we observe today, which challenges are still open and why the development of conversational recommenders represents one of the next grand challenges of AI.
Recently, deep learning models play more and more important roles in contents recommender systems. However, although the performance of recommendations is greatly improved, the "Matthew effect" becomes increasingly evident. While the head contents get more and more popular, many competitive long-tail contents are difficult to achieve timely exposure because of lacking behavior features. This issue has badly impacted the quality and diversity of recommendations. To solve this problem, look-alike algorithm is a good choice to extend audience for high quality long-tail contents. But the traditional look-alike models which widely used in online advertising are not suitable for recommender systems because of the strict requirement of both real-time and effectiveness. This paper introduces a real-time attention based look-alike model (RALM) for recommender systems, which tackles the challenge of conflict between real-time and effectiveness. RALM realizes real-time look-alike audience extension benefiting from seeds-to-user similarity prediction and improves the effectiveness through optimizing user representation learning and look-alike learning modeling. For user representation learning, we propose a novel neural network structure named attention merge layer to replace the concatenation layer, which significantly improves the expressive ability of multi-fields feature learning. On the other hand, considering the various members of seeds, we design global attention unit and local attention unit to learn robust and adaptive seeds representation with respect to a certain target user. At last, we introduce seeds clustering mechanism which not only reduces the time complexity of attention units prediction but also minimizes the loss of seeds information at the same time. According to our experiments, RALM shows superior effectiveness and performance than popular look-alike models.