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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Neighbor Enhanced Graph Convolutional Networks for Node Classification and Recommendation

Mar 30, 2022
Hao Chen, Zhong Huang, Yue Xu, Zengde Deng, Feiran Huang, Peng He, Zhoujun Li

The recently proposed Graph Convolutional Networks (GCNs) have achieved significantly superior performance on various graph-related tasks, such as node classification and recommendation. However, currently researches on GCN models usually recursively aggregate the information from all the neighbors or randomly sampled neighbor subsets, without explicitly identifying whether the aggregated neighbors provide useful information during the graph convolution. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the affection of the neighbor quality over GCN models' performance and propose the Neighbor Enhanced Graph Convolutional Network (NEGCN) framework to boost the performance of existing GCN models. Our contribution is three-fold. First, we at the first time propose the concept of neighbor quality for both node classification and recommendation tasks in a general theoretical framework. Specifically, for node classification, we propose three propositions to theoretically analyze how the neighbor quality affects the node classification performance of GCN models. Second, based on the three proposed propositions, we introduce the graph refinement process including specially designed neighbor evaluation methods to increase the neighbor quality so as to boost both the node classification and recommendation tasks. Third, we conduct extensive node classification and recommendation experiments on several benchmark datasets. The experimental results verify that our proposed NEGCN framework can significantly enhance the performance for various typical GCN models on both node classification and recommendation tasks.

* 29 pages, 3 figures, 7 tables. Accepted to Knowledge-Based Systems 

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GateFormer: Speeding Up News Feed Recommendation with Input Gated Transformers

Jan 12, 2022
Peitian Zhang, Zheng liu

News feed recommendation is an important web service. In recent years, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been intensively applied to improve the recommendation quality. However, the utilization of these deep models is limited in many aspects, such as lack of explainability and being incompatible with the existing inverted index systems. Above all, the PLMs based recommenders are inefficient, as the encoding of user-side information will take huge computation costs. Although the computation can be accelerated with efficient transformers or distilled PLMs, it is still not enough to make timely recommendations for the active users, who are associated with super long news browsing histories. In this work, we tackle the efficient news recommendation problem from a distinctive perspective. Instead of relying on the entire input (i.e., the collection of news articles a user ever browsed), we argue that the user's interest can be fully captured merely with those representative keywords. Motivated by this, we propose GateFormer, where the input data is gated before feeding into transformers. The gating module is made personalized, lightweight and end-to-end learnable, such that it may perform accurate and efficient filtering of informative user input. GateFormer achieves highly impressive performances in experiments, where it notably outperforms the existing acceleration approaches in both accuracy and efficiency. We also surprisingly find that even with over 10-fold compression of the original input, GateFormer is still able to maintain on-par performances with the SOTA methods.


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Genetic Meta-Structure Search for Recommendation on Heterogeneous Information Network

Feb 21, 2021
Zhenyu Han, Fengli Xu, Jinghan Shi, Yu Shang, Haorui Ma, Pan Hui, Yong Li

In the past decade, the heterogeneous information network (HIN) has become an important methodology for modern recommender systems. To fully leverage its power, manually designed network templates, i.e., meta-structures, are introduced to filter out semantic-aware information. The hand-crafted meta-structure rely on intense expert knowledge, which is both laborious and data-dependent. On the other hand, the number of meta-structures grows exponentially with its size and the number of node types, which prohibits brute-force search. To address these challenges, we propose Genetic Meta-Structure Search (GEMS) to automatically optimize meta-structure designs for recommendation on HINs. Specifically, GEMS adopts a parallel genetic algorithm to search meaningful meta-structures for recommendation, and designs dedicated rules and a meta-structure predictor to efficiently explore the search space. Finally, we propose an attention based multi-view graph convolutional network module to dynamically fuse information from different meta-structures. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets suggest the effectiveness of GEMS, which consistently outperforms all baseline methods in HIN recommendation. Compared with simplified GEMS which utilizes hand-crafted meta-paths, GEMS achieves over $6\%$ performance gain on most evaluation metrics. More importantly, we conduct an in-depth analysis on the identified meta-structures, which sheds light on the HIN based recommender system design.

* Published in Proceedings of the 29th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '20) 

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A Bayesian Approach to Conversational Recommendation Systems

Feb 12, 2020
Francesca Mangili, Denis Broggini, Alessandro Antonucci, Marco Alberti, Lorenzo Cimasoni

We present a conversational recommendation system based on a Bayesian approach. A probability mass function over the items is updated after any interaction with the user, with information-theoretic criteria optimally shaping the interaction and deciding when the conversation should be terminated and the most probable item consequently recommended. Dedicated elicitation techniques for the prior probabilities of the parameters modeling the interactions are derived from basic structural judgements. Such prior information can be combined with historical data to discriminate items with different recommendation histories. A case study based on the application of this approach to \emph{stagend.com}, an online platform for booking entertainers, is finally discussed together with an empirical analysis showing the advantages in terms of recommendation quality and efficiency.

* Accepted for oral presentation at the \emph{AAAI 2020 Workshop on Interactive and Conversational Recommendation Systems} (WICRS) 

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Deep Multi-View Learning for Tire Recommendation

Mar 23, 2022
Thomas Ranvier, Kilian Bourhis, Khalid Benabdeslem, Bruno Canitia

We are constantly using recommender systems, often without even noticing. They build a profile of our person in order to recommend the content we will most likely be interested in. The data representing the users, their interactions with the system or the products may come from different sources and be of a various nature. Our goal is to use a multi-view learning approach to improve our recommender system and improve its capacity to manage multi-view data. We propose a comparative study between several state-of-the-art multi-view models applied to our industrial data. Our study demonstrates the relevance of using multi-view learning within recommender systems.

* 2021 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN), Jul 2021, Shenzhen, China. pp.1-8 

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Cold-start recommendations in Collective Matrix Factorization

Sep 02, 2018
David Cortes

This work explores the ability of collective matrix factorization models in recommender systems to make predictions about users and items for which there is side information available but no feedback or interactions data, and proposes a new formulation with a faster cold-start prediction formula that can be used in real-time systems. While these cold-start recommendations are not as good as warm-start ones, they were found to be of better quality than non-personalized recommendations, and predictions about new users were found to be more reliable than those about new items. The formulation proposed here resulted in improved cold-start recommendations in many scenarios, at the expense of worse warm-start ones.


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Socially-Aware Self-Supervised Tri-Training for Recommendation

Jun 15, 2021
Junliang Yu, Hongzhi Yin, Min Gao, Xin Xia, Xiangliang Zhang, Nguyen Quoc Viet Hung

Self-supervised learning (SSL), which can automatically generate ground-truth samples from raw data, holds vast potential to improve recommender systems. Most existing SSL-based methods perturb the raw data graph with uniform node/edge dropout to generate new data views and then conduct the self-discrimination based contrastive learning over different views to learn generalizable representations. Under this scheme, only a bijective mapping is built between nodes in two different views, which means that the self-supervision signals from other nodes are being neglected. Due to the widely observed homophily in recommender systems, we argue that the supervisory signals from other nodes are also highly likely to benefit the representation learning for recommendation. To capture these signals, a general socially-aware SSL framework that integrates tri-training is proposed in this paper. Technically, our framework first augments the user data views with the user social information. And then under the regime of tri-training for multi-view encoding, the framework builds three graph encoders (one for recommendation) upon the augmented views and iteratively improves each encoder with self-supervision signals from other users, generated by the other two encoders. Since the tri-training operates on the augmented views of the same data sources for self-supervision signals, we name it self-supervised tri-training. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets consistently validate the effectiveness of the self-supervised tri-training framework for improving recommendation. The code is released at https://github.com/Coder-Yu/QRec.

* 9 pages, accepted by KDD'21 

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C$^2$-Rec: An Effective Consistency Constraint for Sequential Recommendation

Dec 13, 2021
Chong Liu, Xiaoyang Liu, Rongqin Zheng, Lixin Zhang, Xiaobo Liang, Juntao Li, Lijun Wu, Min Zhang, Leyu Lin

Sequential recommendation methods play an important role in real-world recommender systems. These systems are able to catch user preferences by taking advantage of historical records and then performing recommendations. Contrastive learning(CL) is a cutting-edge technology that can assist us in obtaining informative user representations, but these CL-based models need subtle negative sampling strategies, tedious data augmentation methods, and heavy hyper-parameters tuning work. In this paper, we introduce another way to generate better user representations and recommend more attractive items to users. Particularly, we put forward an effective \textbf{C}onsistency \textbf{C}onstraint for sequential \textbf{Rec}ommendation(C$^2$-Rec) in which only two extra training objectives are used without any structural modifications and data augmentation strategies. Substantial experiments have been conducted on three benchmark datasets and one real industrial dataset, which proves that our proposed method outperforms SOTA models substantially. Furthermore, our method needs much less training time than those CL-based models. Online AB-test on real-world recommendation systems also achieves 10.141\% improvement on the click-through rate and 10.541\% increase on the average click number per capita. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/zhengrongqin/C2-Rec}.


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CSRN: Collaborative Sequential Recommendation Networks for News Retrieval

Apr 07, 2020
Bing Bai, Guanhua Zhang, Ye Lin, Hao Li, Kun Bai, Bo Luo

Nowadays, news apps have taken over the popularity of paper-based media, providing a great opportunity for personalization. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)-based sequential recommendation is a popular approach that utilizes users' recent browsing history to predict future items. This approach is limited that it does not consider the societal influences of news consumption, i.e., users may follow popular topics that are constantly changing, while certain hot topics might be spreading only among specific groups of people. Such societal impact is difficult to predict given only users' own reading histories. On the other hand, the traditional User-based Collaborative Filtering (UserCF) makes recommendations based on the interests of the "neighbors", which provides the possibility to supplement the weaknesses of RNN-based methods. However, conventional UserCF only uses a single similarity metric to model the relationships between users, which is too coarse-grained and thus limits the performance. In this paper, we propose a framework of deep neural networks to integrate the RNN-based sequential recommendations and the key ideas from UserCF, to develop Collaborative Sequential Recommendation Networks (CSRNs). Firstly, we build a directed co-reading network of users, to capture the fine-grained topic-specific similarities between users in a vector space. Then, the CSRN model encodes users with RNNs, and learns to attend to neighbors and summarize what news they are reading at the moment. Finally, news articles are recommended according to both the user's own state and the summarized state of the neighbors. Experiments on two public datasets show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches significantly.


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