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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Attentive Geo-Social Group Recommendation

Nov 06, 2019
Fei Yu

Social activities play an important role in people's daily life since they interact. For recommendations based on social activities, it is vital to have not only the activity information but also individuals' social relations. Thanks to the geo-social networks and widespread use of location-aware mobile devices, massive geo-social data is now readily available for exploitation by the recommendation system. In this paper, a novel group recommendation method, called attentive geo-social group recommendation, is proposed to recommend the target user with both activity locations and a group of users that may join the activities. We present an attention mechanism to model the influence of the target user $u_T$ in candidate user groups that satisfy the social constraints. It helps to retrieve the optimal user group and activity topic candidates, as well as explains the group decision-making process. Once the user group and topics are retrieved, a novel efficient spatial query algorithm SPA-DF is employed to determine the activity location under the constraints of the given user group and activity topic candidates. The proposed method is evaluated in real-world datasets and the experimental results show that the proposed model significantly outperforms baseline methods.

* 12 pages, 7 figures 

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Latent Variable Session-Based Recommendation

Apr 24, 2019
David Rohde, Stephen Bonner

Session based recommendation provides an attractive alternative to the traditional feature engineering approach to recommendation. Feature engineering approaches require hand tuned features of the users history to be created to produce a context vector. In contrast a session based approach is able to dynamically model the users state as they act. We present a probabilistic framework for session based recommendation. A latent variable for the user state is updated as the user views more items and we learn more about their interests. The latent variable model is conceptually simple and elegant; yet requires sophisticated computational technique to approximate the integral over the latent variable. We provide computational solutions using both the re-parameterization trick and also using the Bouchard bound for the softmax function, we further explore employing a variational auto-encoder and a variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm for tightening the variational bound. The model performs well against a number of baselines. The intuitive nature of the model allows an elegant formulation combining correlations between items and their popularity and that sheds light on other popular recommendation methods. An attractive feature of the latent variable approach is that, as the user continues to act, the posterior on the users state tightens reflecting the recommender system's increased knowledge about that user.

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Self-Supervised Multi-Channel Hypergraph Convolutional Network for Social Recommendation

Jan 21, 2021
Junliang Yu, Hongzhi Yin, Jundong Li, Qinyong Wang, Nguyen Quoc Viet Hung, Xiangliang Zhang

Social relations are often used to improve recommendation quality when user-item interaction data is sparse in recommender systems. Most existing social recommendation models exploit pairwise relations to mine potential user preferences. However, real-life interactions among users are very complicated and user relations can be high-order. Hypergraph provides a natural way to model complex high-order relations, while its potentials for improving social recommendation are under-explored. In this paper, we fill this gap and propose a multi-channel hypergraph convolutional network to enhance social recommendation by leveraging high-order user relations. Technically, each channel in the network encodes a hypergraph that depicts a common high-order user relation pattern via hypergraph convolution. By aggregating the embeddings learned through multiple channels, we obtain comprehensive user representations to generate recommendation results. However, the aggregation operation might also obscure the inherent characteristics of different types of high-order connectivity information. To compensate for the aggregating loss, we innovatively integrate self-supervised learning into the training of the hypergraph convolutional network to regain the connectivity information with hierarchical mutual information maximization. The experimental results on multiple real-world datasets show that the proposed model outperforms the SOTA methods, and the ablation study verifies the effectiveness of the multi-channel setting and the self-supervised task. The implementation of our model is available via

* 12 pages, Accepted to WWW'21 

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Single-shot Embedding Dimension Search in Recommender System

Apr 15, 2022
Liang Qu, Yonghong Ye, Ningzhi Tang, Lixin Zhang, Yuhui Shi, Hongzhi Yin

As a crucial component of most modern deep recommender systems, feature embedding maps high-dimensional sparse user/item features into low-dimensional dense embeddings. However, these embeddings are usually assigned a unified dimension, which suffers from the following issues: (1) high memory usage and computation cost. (2) sub-optimal performance due to inferior dimension assignments. In order to alleviate the above issues, some works focus on automated embedding dimension search by formulating it as hyper-parameter optimization or embedding pruning problems. However, they either require well-designed search space for hyperparameters or need time-consuming optimization procedures. In this paper, we propose a Single-Shot Embedding Dimension Search method, called SSEDS, which can efficiently assign dimensions for each feature field via a single-shot embedding pruning operation while maintaining the recommendation accuracy of the model. Specifically, it introduces a criterion for identifying the importance of each embedding dimension for each feature field. As a result, SSEDS could automatically obtain mixed-dimensional embeddings by explicitly reducing redundant embedding dimensions based on the corresponding dimension importance ranking and the predefined parameter budget. Furthermore, the proposed SSEDS is model-agnostic, meaning that it could be integrated into different base recommendation models. The extensive offline experiments are conducted on two widely used public datasets for CTR prediction tasks, and the results demonstrate that SSEDS can still achieve strong recommendation performance even if it has reduced 90\% parameters. Moreover, SSEDS has also been deployed on the WeChat Subscription platform for practical recommendation services. The 7-day online A/B test results show that SSEDS can significantly improve the performance of the online recommendation model.

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Syndrome-aware Herb Recommendation with Multi-Graph Convolution Network

Feb 20, 2020
Yuanyuan Jin, Wei Zhang, Xiangnan He, Xinyu Wang, Xiaoling Wang

Herb recommendation plays a crucial role in the therapeutic process of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM), which aims to recommend a set of herbs to treat the symptoms of a patient. While several machine learning methods have been developed for herb recommendation, they are limited in modeling only the interactions between herbs and symptoms, and ignoring the intermediate process of syndrome induction. When performing TCM diagnostics, an experienced doctor typically induces syndromes from the patient's symptoms and then suggests herbs based on the induced syndromes. As such, we believe the induction of syndromes, an overall description of the symptoms, is important for herb recommendation and should be properly handled. However, due to the ambiguity and complexity of syndrome induction, most prescriptions lack the explicit ground truth of syndromes. In this paper, we propose a new method that takes the implicit syndrome induction process into account for herb recommendation. Given a set of symptoms to treat, we aim to generate an overall syndrome representation by effectively fusing the embeddings of all the symptoms in the set, to mimic how a doctor induces the syndromes. Towards symptom embedding learning, we additionally construct a symptom-symptom graph from the input prescriptions for capturing the relations between symptoms; we then build graph convolution networks(GCNs) on both symptom-symptom and symptom-herb graphs to learn symptom embedding. Similarly, we construct a herb-herb graph and build GCNs on both herb-herb and symptom-herb graphs to learn herb embedding, which is finally interacted with the syndrome representation to predict the scores of herbs. In this way, more comprehensive representations can be obtained. We conduct extensive experiments on a public TCM dataset, showing significant improvements over state-of-the-art herb recommendation methods.

* Accepted by ICDE 2020 

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Scalable Hyperbolic Recommender Systems

Feb 22, 2019
Benjamin Paul Chamberlain, Stephen R. Hardwick, David R. Wardrope, Fabon Dzogang, Fabio Daolio, Saúl Vargas

We present a large scale hyperbolic recommender system. We discuss why hyperbolic geometry is a more suitable underlying geometry for many recommendation systems and cover the fundamental milestones and insights that we have gained from its development. In doing so, we demonstrate the viability of hyperbolic geometry for recommender systems, showing that they significantly outperform Euclidean models on datasets with the properties of complex networks. Key to the success of our approach are the novel choice of underlying hyperbolic model and the use of the Einstein midpoint to define an asymmetric recommender system in hyperbolic space. These choices allow us to scale to millions of users and hundreds of thousands of items.

* 11 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables 

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Chronological Citation Recommendation with Time Preference

Jan 19, 2021
Shutian Ma, Heng Zhang, Chengzhi Zhang, Xiaozhong Liu

Citation recommendation is an important task to assist scholars in finding candidate literature to cite. Traditional studies focus on static models of recommending citations, which do not explicitly distinguish differences between papers that are caused by temporal variations. Although, some researchers have investigated chronological citation recommendation by adding time related function or modeling textual topics dynamically. These solutions can hardly cope with function generalization or cold-start problems when there is no information for user profiling or there are isolated papers never being cited. With the rise and fall of science paradigms, scientific topics tend to change and evolve over time. People would have the time preference when citing papers, since most of the theoretical basis exist in classical readings that published in old time, while new techniques are proposed in more recent papers. To explore chronological citation recommendation, this paper wants to predict the time preference based on user queries, which is a probability distribution of citing papers published in different time slices. Then, we use this time preference to re-rank the initial citation list obtained by content-based filtering. Experimental results demonstrate that task performance can be further enhanced by time preference and it's flexible to be added in other citation recommendation frameworks.

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Reinforcement Learning to Optimize Lifetime Value in Cold-Start Recommendation

Aug 20, 2021
Luo Ji, Qin Qi, Bingqing Han, Hongxia Yang

Recommender system plays a crucial role in modern E-commerce platform. Due to the lack of historical interactions between users and items, cold-start recommendation is a challenging problem. In order to alleviate the cold-start issue, most existing methods introduce content and contextual information as the auxiliary information. Nevertheless, these methods assume the recommended items behave steadily over time, while in a typical E-commerce scenario, items generally have very different performances throughout their life period. In such a situation, it would be beneficial to consider the long-term return from the item perspective, which is usually ignored in conventional methods. Reinforcement learning (RL) naturally fits such a long-term optimization problem, in which the recommender could identify high potential items, proactively allocate more user impressions to boost their growth, therefore improve the multi-period cumulative gains. Inspired by this idea, we model the process as a Partially Observable and Controllable Markov Decision Process (POC-MDP), and propose an actor-critic RL framework (RL-LTV) to incorporate the item lifetime values (LTV) into the recommendation. In RL-LTV, the critic studies historical trajectories of items and predict the future LTV of fresh item, while the actor suggests a score-based policy which maximizes the future LTV expectation. Scores suggested by the actor are then combined with classical ranking scores in a dual-rank framework, therefore the recommendation is balanced with the LTV consideration. Our method outperforms the strong live baseline with a relative improvement of 8.67% and 18.03% on IPV and GMV of cold-start items, on one of the largest E-commerce platform.

* Accepted by CIKM 2021 

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S^3-Rec: Self-Supervised Learning for Sequential Recommendation with Mutual Information Maximization

Aug 18, 2020
Kun Zhou, Hui Wang, Wayne Xin Zhao, Yutao Zhu, Sirui Wang, Fuzheng Zhang, Zhongyuan Wang, Ji-Rong Wen

Recently, significant progress has been made in sequential recommendation with deep learning. Existing neural sequential recommendation models usually rely on the item prediction loss to learn model parameters or data representations. However, the model trained with this loss is prone to suffer from data sparsity problem. Since it overemphasizes the final performance, the association or fusion between context data and sequence data has not been well captured and utilized for sequential recommendation. To tackle this problem, we propose the model S^3-Rec, which stands for Self-Supervised learning for Sequential Recommendation, based on the self-attentive neural architecture. The main idea of our approach is to utilize the intrinsic data correlation to derive self-supervision signals and enhance the data representations via pre-training methods for improving sequential recommendation. For our task, we devise four auxiliary self-supervised objectives to learn the correlations among attribute, item, subsequence, and sequence by utilizing the mutual information maximization (MIM) principle. MIM provides a unified way to characterize the correlation between different types of data, which is particularly suitable in our scenario. Extensive experiments conducted on six real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method over existing state-of-the-art methods, especially when only limited training data is available. Besides, we extend our self-supervised learning method to other recommendation models, which also improve their performance.

* Accepted as CIKM2020 long paper 

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