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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Recommending with an Agenda: Active Learning of Private Attributes using Matrix Factorization

Jul 30, 2014
Smriti Bhagat, Udi Weinsberg, Stratis Ioannidis, Nina Taft

Recommender systems leverage user demographic information, such as age, gender, etc., to personalize recommendations and better place their targeted ads. Oftentimes, users do not volunteer this information due to privacy concerns, or due to a lack of initiative in filling out their online profiles. We illustrate a new threat in which a recommender learns private attributes of users who do not voluntarily disclose them. We design both passive and active attacks that solicit ratings for strategically selected items, and could thus be used by a recommender system to pursue this hidden agenda. Our methods are based on a novel usage of Bayesian matrix factorization in an active learning setting. Evaluations on multiple datasets illustrate that such attacks are indeed feasible and use significantly fewer rated items than static inference methods. Importantly, they succeed without sacrificing the quality of recommendations to users.

* This is the extended version of a paper that appeared in ACM RecSys 2014 

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ELIXIR: Learning from User Feedback on Explanations to Improve Recommender Models

Feb 22, 2021
Azin Ghazimatin, Soumajit Pramanik, Rishiraj Saha Roy, Gerhard Weikum

System-provided explanations for recommendations are an important component towards transparent and trustworthy AI. In state-of-the-art research, this is a one-way signal, though, to improve user acceptance. In this paper, we turn the role of explanations around and investigate how they can contribute to enhancing the quality of generated recommendations themselves. We devise a human-in-the-loop framework, called ELIXIR, where user feedback on explanations is leveraged for pairwise learning of user preferences. ELIXIR leverages feedback on pairs of recommendations and explanations to learn user-specific latent preference vectors, overcoming sparseness by label propagation with item-similarity-based neighborhoods. Our framework is instantiated using generalized graph recommendation via Random Walk with Restart. Insightful experiments with a real user study show significant improvements in movie and book recommendations over item-level feedback.

* WWW 2021, 11 pages 

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"And the Winner Is...": Dynamic Lotteries for Multi-group Fairness-Aware Recommendation

Sep 05, 2020
Nasim Sonboli, Robin Burke, Nicholas Mattei, Farzad Eskandanian, Tian Gao

As recommender systems are being designed and deployed for an increasing number of socially-consequential applications, it has become important to consider what properties of fairness these systems exhibit. There has been considerable research on recommendation fairness. However, we argue that the previous literature has been based on simple, uniform and often uni-dimensional notions of fairness assumptions that do not recognize the real-world complexities of fairness-aware applications. In this paper, we explicitly represent the design decisions that enter into the trade-off between accuracy and fairness across multiply-defined and intersecting protected groups, supporting multiple fairness metrics. The framework also allows the recommender to adjust its performance based on the historical view of recommendations that have been delivered over a time horizon, dynamically rebalancing between fairness concerns. Within this framework, we formulate lottery-based mechanisms for choosing between fairness concerns, and demonstrate their performance in two recommendation domains.


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Safe Medicine Recommendation via Medical Knowledge Graph Embedding

Oct 26, 2017
Meng Wang, Mengyue Liu, Jun Liu, Sen Wang, Guodong Long, Buyue Qian

Most of the existing medicine recommendation systems that are mainly based on electronic medical records (EMRs) are significantly assisting doctors to make better clinical decisions benefiting both patients and caregivers. Even though the growth of EMRs is at a lighting fast speed in the era of big data, content limitations in EMRs restrain the existed recommendation systems to reflect relevant medical facts, such as drug-drug interactions. Many medical knowledge graphs that contain drug-related information, such as DrugBank, may give hope for the recommendation systems. However, the direct use of these knowledge graphs in the systems suffers from robustness caused by the incompleteness of the graphs. To address these challenges, we stand on recent advances in graph embedding learning techniques and propose a novel framework, called Safe Medicine Recommendation (SMR), in this paper. Specifically, SMR first constructs a high-quality heterogeneous graph by bridging EMRs (MIMIC-III) and medical knowledge graphs (ICD-9 ontology and DrugBank). Then, SMR jointly embeds diseases, medicines, patients, and their corresponding relations into a shared lower dimensional space. Finally, SMR uses the embeddings to decompose the medicine recommendation into a link prediction process while considering the patient's diagnoses and adverse drug reactions. To our best knowledge, SMR is the first to learn embeddings of a patient-disease-medicine graph for medicine recommendation in the world. Extensive experiments on real datasets are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed framework.

* 8 pages, 3 figures, 5 tables 

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Wisdom of the Crowd: Incorporating Social Influence in Recommendation Models

May 17, 2013
Shang Shang, Pan Hui, Sanjeev R. Kulkarni, Paul W. Cuff

Recommendation systems have received considerable attention recently. However, most research has been focused on improving the performance of collaborative filtering (CF) techniques. Social networks, indispensably, provide us extra information on people's preferences, and should be considered and deployed to improve the quality of recommendations. In this paper, we propose two recommendation models, for individuals and for groups respectively, based on social contagion and social influence network theory. In the recommendation model for individuals, we improve the result of collaborative filtering prediction with social contagion outcome, which simulates the result of information cascade in the decision-making process. In the recommendation model for groups, we apply social influence network theory to take interpersonal influence into account to form a settled pattern of disagreement, and then aggregate opinions of group members. By introducing the concept of susceptibility and interpersonal influence, the settled rating results are flexible, and inclined to members whose ratings are "essential".

* HotPost 2011, 6 pages 

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Improving Conversational Recommendation Systems' Quality with Context-Aware Item Meta Information

Dec 15, 2021
Bowen Yang, Cong Han, Yu Li, Lei Zuo, Zhou Yu

Conversational recommendation systems (CRS) engage with users by inferring user preferences from dialog history, providing accurate recommendations, and generating appropriate responses. Previous CRSs use knowledge graph (KG) based recommendation modules and integrate KG with language models for response generation. Although KG-based approaches prove effective, two issues remain to be solved. First, KG-based approaches ignore the information in the conversational context but only rely on entity relations and bag of words to recommend items. Second, it requires substantial engineering efforts to maintain KGs that model domain-specific relations, thus leading to less flexibility. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective architecture comprising a pre-trained language model (PLM) and an item metadata encoder. The encoder learns to map item metadata to embeddings that can reflect the semantic information in the dialog context. The PLM then consumes the semantic-aligned item embeddings together with dialog context to generate high-quality recommendations and responses. Instead of modeling entity relations with KGs, our model reduces engineering complexity by directly converting each item to an embedding. Experimental results on the benchmark dataset ReDial show that our model obtains state-of-the-art results on both recommendation and response generation tasks.


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Content-boosted Matrix Factorization Techniques for Recommender Systems

Jan 04, 2013
Jennifer Nguyen, Mu Zhu

Many businesses are using recommender systems for marketing outreach. Recommendation algorithms can be either based on content or driven by collaborative filtering. We study different ways to incorporate content information directly into the matrix factorization approach of collaborative filtering. These content-boosted matrix factorization algorithms not only improve recommendation accuracy, but also provide useful insights about the contents, as well as make recommendations more easily interpretable.

* Statistical Analysis and Data Mining, Vol. 6, pp. 286 - 301, August 2013 

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Multi-Objective Recommendations: A Tutorial

Aug 13, 2021
Yong Zheng, David, Wang

Recommender systems (RecSys) have been well developed to assist user decision making. Traditional RecSys usually optimize a single objective (e.g., rating prediction errors or ranking quality) in the model. There is an emerging demand in multi-objective optimization recently in RecSys, especially in the area of multi-stakeholder and multi-task recommender systems. This article provides an overview of multi-objective recommendations, followed by the discussions with case studies. The document is considered as a supplementary material for our tutorial on multi-objective recommendations at ACM SIGKDD 2021.


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MultiHead MultiModal Deep Interest Recommendation Network

Oct 19, 2021
Mingbao Yang, ShaoBo Li, Zhou Peng, Ansi Zhang, Yuanmeng Zhang

With the development of information technology, human beings are constantly producing a large amount of information at all times. How to obtain the information that users are interested in from the large amount of information has become an issue of great concern to users and even business managers. In order to solve this problem, from traditional machine learning to deep learning recommendation systems, researchers continue to improve optimization models and explore solutions. Because researchers have optimized more on the recommendation model network structure, they have less research on enriching recommendation model features, and there is still room for in-depth recommendation model optimization. Based on the DIN\cite{Authors01} model, this paper adds multi-head and multi-modal modules, which enriches the feature sets that the model can use, and at the same time strengthens the cross-combination and fitting capabilities of the model. Experiments show that the multi-head multi-modal DIN improves the recommendation prediction effect, and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on various comprehensive indicators.


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