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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Sampler Design for Implicit Feedback Data by Noisy-label Robust Learning

Jun 28, 2020
Wenhui Yu, Zheng Qin

Implicit feedback data is extensively explored in recommendation as it is easy to collect and generally applicable. However, predicting users' preference on implicit feedback data is a challenging task since we can only observe positive (voted) samples and unvoted samples. It is difficult to distinguish between the negative samples and unlabeled positive samples from the unvoted ones. Existing works, such as Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR), sample unvoted items as negative samples uniformly, therefore suffer from a critical noisy-label issue. To address this gap, we design an adaptive sampler based on noisy-label robust learning for implicit feedback data. To formulate the issue, we first introduce Bayesian Point-wise Optimization (BPO) to learn a model, e.g., Matrix Factorization (MF), by maximum likelihood estimation. We predict users' preferences with the model and learn it by maximizing likelihood of observed data labels, i.e., a user prefers her positive samples and has no interests in her unvoted samples. However, in reality, a user may have interests in some of her unvoted samples, which are indeed positive samples mislabeled as negative ones. We then consider the risk of these noisy labels, and propose a Noisy-label Robust BPO (NBPO). NBPO also maximizes the observation likelihood while connects users' preference and observed labels by the likelihood of label flipping based on the Bayes' theorem. In NBPO, a user prefers her true positive samples and shows no interests in her true negative samples, hence the optimization quality is dramatically improved. Extensive experiments on two public real-world datasets show the significant improvement of our proposed optimization methods.

* SIGIR 2020 paper 

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Misspecified Linear Bandits

Apr 23, 2017
Avishek Ghosh, Sayak Ray Chowdhury, Aditya Gopalan

We consider the problem of online learning in misspecified linear stochastic multi-armed bandit problems. Regret guarantees for state-of-the-art linear bandit algorithms such as Optimism in the Face of Uncertainty Linear bandit (OFUL) hold under the assumption that the arms expected rewards are perfectly linear in their features. It is, however, of interest to investigate the impact of potential misspecification in linear bandit models, where the expected rewards are perturbed away from the linear subspace determined by the arms features. Although OFUL has recently been shown to be robust to relatively small deviations from linearity, we show that any linear bandit algorithm that enjoys optimal regret performance in the perfectly linear setting (e.g., OFUL) must suffer linear regret under a sparse additive perturbation of the linear model. In an attempt to overcome this negative result, we define a natural class of bandit models characterized by a non-sparse deviation from linearity. We argue that the OFUL algorithm can fail to achieve sublinear regret even under models that have non-sparse deviation.We finally develop a novel bandit algorithm, comprising a hypothesis test for linearity followed by a decision to use either the OFUL or Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) algorithm. For perfectly linear bandit models, the algorithm provably exhibits OFULs favorable regret performance, while for misspecified models satisfying the non-sparse deviation property, the algorithm avoids the linear regret phenomenon and falls back on UCBs sublinear regret scaling. Numerical experiments on synthetic data, and on recommendation data from the public Yahoo! Learning to Rank Challenge dataset, empirically support our findings.

* Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2017 

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Triangle Graph Interest Network for Click-through Rate Prediction

Feb 06, 2022
Wensen Jiang, Yizhu Jiao, Qingqin Wang, Chuanming Liang, Lijie Guo, Yao Zhang, Zhijun Sun, Yun Xiong, Yangyong Zhu

Click-through rate prediction is a critical task in online advertising. Currently, many existing methods attempt to extract user potential interests from historical click behavior sequences. However, it is difficult to handle sparse user behaviors or broaden interest exploration. Recently, some researchers incorporate the item-item co-occurrence graph as an auxiliary. Due to the elusiveness of user interests, those works still fail to determine the real motivation of user click behaviors. Besides, those works are more biased towards popular or similar commodities. They lack an effective mechanism to break the diversity restrictions. In this paper, we point out two special properties of triangles in the item-item graphs for recommendation systems: Intra-triangle homophily and Inter-triangle heterophiy. Based on this, we propose a novel and effective framework named Triangle Graph Interest Network (TGIN). For each clicked item in user behavior sequences, we introduce the triangles in its neighborhood of the item-item graphs as a supplement. TGIN regards these triangles as the basic units of user interests, which provide the clues to capture the real motivation for a user clicking an item. We characterize every click behavior by aggregating the information of several interest units to alleviate the elusive motivation problem. The attention mechanism determines users' preference for different interest units. By selecting diverse and relative triangles, TGIN brings in novel and serendipitous items to expand exploration opportunities of user interests. Then, we aggregate the multi-level interests of historical behavior sequences to improve CTR prediction. Extensive experiments on both public and industrial datasets clearly verify the effectiveness of our framework.

* This paper is accepted by WSDM 2022. Source code: https://github.com/alibaba/tgin 

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Inductive Matrix Completion Using Graph Autoencoder

Aug 25, 2021
Wei Shen, Chuheng Zhang, Yun Tian, Liang Zeng, Xiaonan He, Wanchun Dou, Xiaolong Xu

Recently, the graph neural network (GNN) has shown great power in matrix completion by formulating a rating matrix as a bipartite graph and then predicting the link between the corresponding user and item nodes. The majority of GNN-based matrix completion methods are based on Graph Autoencoder (GAE), which considers the one-hot index as input, maps a user (or item) index to a learnable embedding, applies a GNN to learn the node-specific representations based on these learnable embeddings and finally aggregates the representations of the target users and its corresponding item nodes to predict missing links. However, without node content (i.e., side information) for training, the user (or item) specific representation can not be learned in the inductive setting, that is, a model trained on one group of users (or items) cannot adapt to new users (or items). To this end, we propose an inductive matrix completion method using GAE (IMC-GAE), which utilizes the GAE to learn both the user-specific (or item-specific) representation for personalized recommendation and local graph patterns for inductive matrix completion. Specifically, we design two informative node features and employ a layer-wise node dropout scheme in GAE to learn local graph patterns which can be generalized to unseen data. The main contribution of our paper is the capability to efficiently learn local graph patterns in GAE, with good scalability and superior expressiveness compared to previous GNN-based matrix completion methods. Furthermore, extensive experiments demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on several matrix completion benchmarks. Our official code is publicly available.


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A Survey on Optimal Transport for Machine Learning: Theory and Applications

Jun 03, 2021
Luis Caicedo Torres, Luiz Manella Pereira, M. Hadi Amini

Optimal Transport (OT) theory has seen an increasing amount of attention from the computer science community due to its potency and relevance in modeling and machine learning. It introduces means that serve as powerful ways to compare probability distributions with each other, as well as producing optimal mappings to minimize cost functions. In this survey, we present a brief introduction and history, a survey of previous work and propose directions of future study. We will begin by looking at the history of optimal transport and introducing the founders of this field. We then give a brief glance into the algorithms related to OT. Then, we will follow up with a mathematical formulation and the prerequisites to understand OT. These include Kantorovich duality, entropic regularization, KL Divergence, and Wassertein barycenters. Since OT is a computationally expensive problem, we then introduce the entropy-regularized version of computing optimal mappings, which allowed OT problems to become applicable in a wide range of machine learning problems. In fact, the methods generated from OT theory are competitive with the current state-of-the-art methods. We follow this up by breaking down research papers that focus on image processing, graph learning, neural architecture search, document representation, and domain adaptation. We close the paper with a small section on future research. Of the recommendations presented, three main problems are fundamental to allow OT to become widely applicable but rely strongly on its mathematical formulation and thus are hardest to answer. Since OT is a novel method, there is plenty of space for new research, and with more and more competitive methods (either on an accuracy level or computational speed level) being created, the future of applied optimal transport is bright as it has become pervasive in machine learning.


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Decentralized Online Learning: Take Benefits from Others' Data without Sharing Your Own to Track Global Trend

Mar 28, 2019
Yawei Zhao, Chen Yu, Peilin Zhao, Ji Liu

Decentralized Online Learning (online learning in decentralized networks) attracts more and more attention, since it is believed that Decentralized Online Learning can help the data providers cooperatively better solve their online problems without sharing their private data to a third party or other providers. Typically, the cooperation is achieved by letting the data providers exchange their models between neighbors, e.g., recommendation model. However, the best regret bound for a decentralized online learning algorithm is $\Ocal{n\sqrt{T}}$, where $n$ is the number of nodes (or users) and $T$ is the number of iterations. This is clearly insignificant since this bound can be achieved \emph{without} any communication in the networks. This reminds us to ask a fundamental question: \emph{Can people really get benefit from the decentralized online learning by exchanging information?} In this paper, we studied when and why the communication can help the decentralized online learning to reduce the regret. Specifically, each loss function is characterized by two components: the adversarial component and the stochastic component. Under this characterization, we show that decentralized online gradient (DOG) enjoys a regret bound $\Ocal{n\sqrt{T}G + \sqrt{nT}\sigma}$, where $G$ measures the magnitude of the adversarial component in the private data (or equivalently the local loss function) and $\sigma$ measures the randomness within the private data. This regret suggests that people can get benefits from the randomness in the private data by exchanging private information. Another important contribution of this paper is to consider the dynamic regret -- a more practical regret to track users' interest dynamics. Empirical studies are also conducted to validate our analysis.

* Second version: revise Assumption 1 (there is a typo in the first version); add experiments (see Figure 2); revise Algorithm 1 in a more clear way 

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Provable Inductive Matrix Completion

Jun 04, 2013
Prateek Jain, Inderjit S. Dhillon

Consider a movie recommendation system where apart from the ratings information, side information such as user's age or movie's genre is also available. Unlike standard matrix completion, in this setting one should be able to predict inductively on new users/movies. In this paper, we study the problem of inductive matrix completion in the exact recovery setting. That is, we assume that the ratings matrix is generated by applying feature vectors to a low-rank matrix and the goal is to recover back the underlying matrix. Furthermore, we generalize the problem to that of low-rank matrix estimation using rank-1 measurements. We study this generic problem and provide conditions that the set of measurements should satisfy so that the alternating minimization method (which otherwise is a non-convex method with no convergence guarantees) is able to recover back the {\em exact} underlying low-rank matrix. In addition to inductive matrix completion, we show that two other low-rank estimation problems can be studied in our framework: a) general low-rank matrix sensing using rank-1 measurements, and b) multi-label regression with missing labels. For both the problems, we provide novel and interesting bounds on the number of measurements required by alternating minimization to provably converges to the {\em exact} low-rank matrix. In particular, our analysis for the general low rank matrix sensing problem significantly improves the required storage and computational cost than that required by the RIP-based matrix sensing methods \cite{RechtFP2007}. Finally, we provide empirical validation of our approach and demonstrate that alternating minimization is able to recover the true matrix for the above mentioned problems using a small number of measurements.


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Non-binary deep transfer learning for imageclassification

Jul 19, 2021
Jo Plested, Xuyang Shen, Tom Gedeon

The current standard for a variety of computer vision tasks using smaller numbers of labelled training examples is to fine-tune from weights pre-trained on a large image classification dataset such as ImageNet. The application of transfer learning and transfer learning methods tends to be rigidly binary. A model is either pre-trained or not pre-trained. Pre-training a model either increases performance or decreases it, the latter being defined as negative transfer. Application of L2-SP regularisation that decays the weights towards their pre-trained values is either applied or all weights are decayed towards 0. This paper re-examines these assumptions. Our recommendations are based on extensive empirical evaluation that demonstrate the application of a non-binary approach to achieve optimal results. (1) Achieving best performance on each individual dataset requires careful adjustment of various transfer learning hyperparameters not usually considered, including number of layers to transfer, different learning rates for different layers and different combinations of L2SP and L2 regularization. (2) Best practice can be achieved using a number of measures of how well the pre-trained weights fit the target dataset to guide optimal hyperparameters. We present methods for non-binary transfer learning including combining L2SP and L2 regularization and performing non-traditional fine-tuning hyperparameter searches. Finally we suggest heuristics for determining the optimal transfer learning hyperparameters. The benefits of using a non-binary approach are supported by final results that come close to or exceed state of the art performance on a variety of tasks that have traditionally been more difficult for transfer learning.

* 9 pages, 6 figures 

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Project CodeNet: A Large-Scale AI for Code Dataset for Learning a Diversity of Coding Tasks

May 25, 2021
Ruchir Puri, David S. Kung, Geert Janssen, Wei Zhang, Giacomo Domeniconi, Vladmir Zolotov, Julian Dolby, Jie Chen, Mihir Choudhury, Lindsey Decker, Veronika Thost, Luca Buratti, Saurabh Pujar, Ulrich Finkler

Advancements in deep learning and machine learning algorithms have enabled breakthrough progress in computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing and beyond. In addition, over the last several decades, software has been built into the fabric of every aspect of our society. Together, these two trends have generated new interest in the fast-emerging research area of AI for Code. As software development becomes ubiquitous across all industries and code infrastructure of enterprise legacy applications ages, it is more critical than ever to increase software development productivity and modernize legacy applications. Over the last decade, datasets like ImageNet, with its large scale and diversity, have played a pivotal role in algorithmic advancements from computer vision to language and speech understanding. In this paper, we present Project CodeNet, a first-of-its-kind, very large scale, diverse, and high-quality dataset to accelerate the algorithmic advancements in AI for Code. It consists of 14M code samples and about 500M lines of code in 55 different programming languages. Project CodeNet is not only unique in its scale, but also in the diversity of coding tasks it can help benchmark: from code similarity and classification for advances in code recommendation algorithms, and code translation between a large variety programming languages, to advances in code performance (both runtime, and memory) improvement techniques. CodeNet also provides sample input and output test sets for over 7M code samples, which can be critical for determining code equivalence in different languages. As a usability feature, we provide several preprocessing tools in Project CodeNet to transform source codes into representations that can be readily used as inputs into machine learning models.

* 11 Pages including references, 10 pages of appendix 

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