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The Role of Robotics in Infectious Disease Crises

Oct 19, 2020
Gregory Hager, Vijay Kumar, Robin Murphy, Daniela Rus, Russell Taylor

The recent coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the many challenges faced by the healthcare, public safety, and economic systems when confronted with a surge in patients that require intensive treatment and a population that must be quarantined or shelter in place. The most obvious and pressing challenge is taking care of acutely ill patients while managing spread of infection within the care facility, but this is just the tip of the iceberg if we consider what could be done to prepare in advance for future pandemics. Beyond the obvious need for strengthening medical knowledge and preparedness, there is a complementary need to anticipate and address the engineering challenges associated with infectious disease emergencies. Robotic technologies are inherently programmable, and robotic systems have been adapted and deployed, to some extent, in the current crisis for such purposes as transport, logistics, and disinfection. As technical capabilities advance and as the installed base of robotic systems increases in the future, they could play a much more significant role in future crises. This report is the outcome of a virtual workshop co-hosted by the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Computing Community Consortium (CCC) held on July 9-10, 2020. The workshop consisted of over forty participants including representatives from the engineering/robotics community, clinicians, critical care workers, public health and safety experts, and emergency responders. It identifies key challenges faced by healthcare responders and the general population and then identifies robotic/technological responses to these challenges. Then it identifies the key research/knowledge barriers that need to be addressed in developing effective, scalable solutions. Finally, the report ends with the following recommendations on how to implement this strategy.

* 25 pages (including title page) 

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Understanding bias in facial recognition technologies

Oct 05, 2020
David Leslie

Over the past couple of years, the growing debate around automated facial recognition has reached a boiling point. As developers have continued to swiftly expand the scope of these kinds of technologies into an almost unbounded range of applications, an increasingly strident chorus of critical voices has sounded concerns about the injurious effects of the proliferation of such systems. Opponents argue that the irresponsible design and use of facial detection and recognition technologies (FDRTs) threatens to violate civil liberties, infringe on basic human rights and further entrench structural racism and systemic marginalisation. They also caution that the gradual creep of face surveillance infrastructures into every domain of lived experience may eventually eradicate the modern democratic forms of life that have long provided cherished means to individual flourishing, social solidarity and human self-creation. Defenders, by contrast, emphasise the gains in public safety, security and efficiency that digitally streamlined capacities for facial identification, identity verification and trait characterisation may bring. In this explainer, I focus on one central aspect of this debate: the role that dynamics of bias and discrimination play in the development and deployment of FDRTs. I examine how historical patterns of discrimination have made inroads into the design and implementation of FDRTs from their very earliest moments. And, I explain the ways in which the use of biased FDRTs can lead distributional and recognitional injustices. The explainer concludes with an exploration of broader ethical questions around the potential proliferation of pervasive face-based surveillance infrastructures and makes some recommendations for cultivating more responsible approaches to the development and governance of these technologies.

* 49 pages 

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Deep Learning Techniques for Geospatial Data Analysis

Aug 30, 2020
Arvind W. Kiwelekar, Geetanjali S. Mahamunkar, Laxman D. Netak, Valmik B Nikam

Consumer electronic devices such as mobile handsets, goods tagged with RFID labels, location and position sensors are continuously generating a vast amount of location enriched data called geospatial data. Conventionally such geospatial data is used for military applications. In recent times, many useful civilian applications have been designed and deployed around such geospatial data. For example, a recommendation system to suggest restaurants or places of attraction to a tourist visiting a particular locality. At the same time, civic bodies are harnessing geospatial data generated through remote sensing devices to provide better services to citizens such as traffic monitoring, pothole identification, and weather reporting. Typically such applications are leveraged upon non-hierarchical machine learning techniques such as Naive-Bayes Classifiers, Support Vector Machines, and decision trees. Recent advances in the field of deep-learning showed that Neural Network-based techniques outperform conventional techniques and provide effective solutions for many geospatial data analysis tasks such as object recognition, image classification, and scene understanding. The chapter presents a survey on the current state of the applications of deep learning techniques for analyzing geospatial data. The chapter is organized as below: (i) A brief overview of deep learning algorithms. (ii)Geospatial Analysis: a Data Science Perspective (iii) Deep-learning techniques for Remote Sensing data analytics tasks (iv) Deep-learning techniques for GPS data analytics(iv) Deep-learning techniques for RFID data analytics.

* In Machine Learning Paradigms, pp. 63-81. Springer, Cham, 2020 
* This is a pre-print of the following chapter: Arvind W. Kiwelekar, Geetanjali S. Mahamunkar, Laxman D. Netak, Valmik B Nikam, {\em Deep Learning Techniques for Geospatial Data Analysis}, published in {\bf Machine Learning Paradigms}, edited by George A. TsihrintzisLakhmi C. Jain, 2020, publisher Springer, Cham reproduced with permission of publisher Springer, Cham 

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Interpretabilité des modèles : état des lieux des méthodes et application à l'assurance

Jul 25, 2020
Dimitri Delcaillau, Antoine Ly, Franck Vermet, Alizé Papp

Since May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has introduced new obligations to industries. By setting a legal framework, it notably imposes strong transparency on the use of personal data. Thus, people must be informed of the use of their data and must consent the usage of it. Data is the raw material of many models which today make it possible to increase the quality and performance of digital services. Transparency on the use of data also requires a good understanding of its use through different models. The use of models, even if efficient, must be accompanied by an understanding at all levels of the process that transform data (upstream and downstream of a model), thus making it possible to define the relationships between the individual's data and the choice that an algorithm could make based on the analysis of the latter. (For example, the recommendation of one product or one promotional offer or an insurance rate representative of the risk.) Models users must ensure that models do not discriminate against and that it is also possible to explain its result. The widening of the panel of predictive algorithms - made possible by the evolution of computing capacities -- leads scientists to be vigilant about the use of models and to consider new tools to better understand the decisions deduced from them . Recently, the community has been particularly active on model transparency with a marked intensification of publications over the past three years. The increasingly frequent use of more complex algorithms (\textit{deep learning}, Xgboost, etc.) presenting attractive performances is undoubtedly one of the causes of this interest. This article thus presents an inventory of methods of interpreting models and their uses in an insurance context.

* 25 pages without appendix, submitted to BFA, French preprint before English paper 

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Deep learning with noisy labels: exploring techniques and remedies in medical image analysis

Jan 01, 2020
Davood Karimi, Haoran Dou, Simon K. Warfield, Ali Gholipour

Supervised training of deep learning models requires large labeled datasets. There is a growing interest in obtaining such datasets for medical image analysis applications. However, the impact of label noise has not received sufficient attention. Recent studies have shown that label noise can significantly impact the performance of deep learning models in many machine learning and computer vision applications. This is especially concerning for medical applications, where datasets are typically small, labeling requires domain expertise and suffers from high inter- and intra-observer variability, and erroneous predictions may influence decisions that directly impact human health. In this paper, we first review the state-of-the-art in handling label noise in deep learning. Then, we review studies that have dealt with label noise in deep learning for medical image analysis. Our review shows that recent progress on handling label noise in deep learning has gone largely unnoticed by the medical image analysis community. To help achieve a better understanding of the extent of the problem and its potential remedies, we conducted experiments with three medical imaging datasets with different types of label noise. Based on the results of these experiments and our review of the literature, we make recommendations on methods that can be used to alleviate the effects of different types of label noise on deep models trained for medical image analysis. We hope that this article helps the medical image analysis researchers and developers in choosing and devising new techniques that effectively handle label noise in deep learning.

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Statistical Significance Testing in Information Retrieval: An Empirical Analysis of Type I, Type II and Type III Errors

Jun 05, 2019
Juli√°n Urbano, Harlley Lima, Alan Hanjalic

Statistical significance testing is widely accepted as a means to assess how well a difference in effectiveness reflects an actual difference between systems, as opposed to random noise because of the selection of topics. According to recent surveys on SIGIR, CIKM, ECIR and TOIS papers, the t-test is the most popular choice among IR researchers. However, previous work has suggested computer intensive tests like the bootstrap or the permutation test, based mainly on theoretical arguments. On empirical grounds, others have suggested non-parametric alternatives such as the Wilcoxon test. Indeed, the question of which tests we should use has accompanied IR and related fields for decades now. Previous theoretical studies on this matter were limited in that we know that test assumptions are not met in IR experiments, and empirical studies were limited in that we do not have the necessary control over the null hypotheses to compute actual Type I and Type II error rates under realistic conditions. Therefore, not only is it unclear which test to use, but also how much trust we should put in them. In contrast to past studies, in this paper we employ a recent simulation methodology from TREC data to go around these limitations. Our study comprises over 500 million p-values computed for a range of tests, systems, effectiveness measures, topic set sizes and effect sizes, and for both the 2-tail and 1-tail cases. Having such a large supply of IR evaluation data with full knowledge of the null hypotheses, we are finally in a position to evaluate how well statistical significance tests really behave with IR data, and make sound recommendations for practitioners.

* 10 pages, 6 figures, SIGIR 2019 

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Edge Intelligence: Paving the Last Mile of Artificial Intelligence with Edge Computing

May 24, 2019
Zhi Zhou, Xu Chen, En Li, Liekang Zeng, Ke Luo, Junshan Zhang

With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions Bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new inter-discipline, edge AI or edge intelligence, is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on edge intelligence is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of edge intelligence is highly desired by both the computer system and artificial intelligence communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on edge intelligence. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for artificial intelligence running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks and emerging key technologies for deep learning model towards training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on edge intelligence. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions and inspire further research ideas on edge intelligence.

* Zhi Zhou, Xu Chen, En Li, Liekang Zeng, Ke Luo, and Junshan Zhang, "Edge Intelligence: Paving the Last Mile of Artificial Intelligence with Edge Computing," Proceedings of the IEEE 

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Cross-Modal Health State Estimation

Aug 23, 2018
Nitish Nag, Vaibhav Pandey, Preston J. Putzel, Hari Bhimaraju, Srikanth Krishnan, Ramesh C. Jain

Individuals create and consume more diverse data about themselves today than any time in history. Sources of this data include wearable devices, images, social media, geospatial information and more. A tremendous opportunity rests within cross-modal data analysis that leverages existing domain knowledge methods to understand and guide human health. Especially in chronic diseases, current medical practice uses a combination of sparse hospital based biological metrics (blood tests, expensive imaging, etc.) to understand the evolving health status of an individual. Future health systems must integrate data created at the individual level to better understand health status perpetually, especially in a cybernetic framework. In this work we fuse multiple user created and open source data streams along with established biomedical domain knowledge to give two types of quantitative state estimates of cardiovascular health. First, we use wearable devices to calculate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a known quantitative leading predictor of heart disease which is not routinely collected in clinical settings. Second, we estimate inherent genetic traits, living environmental risks, circadian rhythm, and biological metrics from a diverse dataset. Our experimental results on 24 subjects demonstrate how multi-modal data can provide personalized health insight. Understanding the dynamic nature of health status will pave the way for better health based recommendation engines, better clinical decision making and positive lifestyle changes.

* Nitish Nag, Vaibhav Pandey, Preston J. Putzel, Hari Bhimaraju, Srikanth Krishnan, Ramesh C. Jain, 2018 ACM Multimedia Conference (MM '18), October 22--26, 2018, Seoul, Republic of Korea 
* Accepted to ACM Multimedia 2018 Conference - Brave New Ideas, Seoul, Korea, ACM ISBN 978-1-4503-5665-7/18/10 

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